is a social, political, and cultural enterprise, but many
people also believe that it could be improved with more
attention to empirical research. Not surprisingly, educational
researchers are particularly prone to think this and have
done a considerable amount of hand-wringing over the apparent
lack of attention to their work. Here are a few of my
contributions to these debates.
M. M. (2002) Knowledge and teaching. Teachers and
Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3/4), 355-370
teachers' reliance on different sources of knowledge:
experience, institutional prescriptions, and formal
knowledge of the sort provided by universities and
M. M. (1999) A test of some common contentions about
educational research. American Educational Research Journal,
competing theories about how to make research more
relevant to teachers. Teachers read and discussed
five research articles representing different research
genres. Comes from the Research
and Teacher Learning (RTL) Study.
M. M. (1999) Infusing education decision-making with
research. In Cizek, G. (Ed.). Handbook of Education
Policy (pp 53-79). San Diego: Academic Press.
literature review organized into three parts: influence
of research on policy, influence of research on practice,
and influence of policy on research.
M. M. (1997).
The connection between research and practice.
Educational Researcher, 26(7), 4-12.
four hypotheses that have been put forward to account
for a perceived lack of connection between research
and practice: research lacks authority, lacks relevance,
or is not accessible, or the education system is inherently
unable to respond coherently to research findings.
M. M. (1997). How teachers connect research and practice.
Midwestern Educational Researcher, 10(1), 25-29.
address at the MWER conference. Examines teachers'
interpretations of a research article and shows how
prior beliefs can lead to idiosyncratic interpretations.
to joining Michigan State, I conducted a study of how
school districts used the many forms of data that the
federal government required them to gather. Most of the
papers below were about or inspired by that study.
M. M. (1989) Federally-funded research centers as links
between research and practice. Paper presented at the
American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
of a symposium on how to organize research so that
it better connects to practice.
M. M. (1989). Response: Studying smoking behavior to
learn about dissemination. Knowledge: Creation, diffusion,
utilization, 11(1), 107-115
paper was written in response to a collection of papers
in which authors fretted about the pontial for research
to influence practice. I used smoking as an example
to illustrate that, once people knowledge from research,
they believe their actions are their own idea.
M. M. (1985) Teacher reactions to use of tests for accountability.
In D. U. Levine (Ed.), Improving student achievement
through mastery learning programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
topic that was timely in the mid 1980s and again in
the early 2000's.
M. M. (1984). How evidence alters understanding and
decisions. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
the different ways in which local school district
personnel interact with available evidence and the
kinds of uses they made of it.
M. M. (1984). Assessing the validity of qualitative
data. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
the question of whether qualitative data really have
the sort of "natural" validity that is often
assumed. Reviews some threats to validity that are
inherent in interview data.
M. M. (1983). Working knowledge. Knowledge: Creation,
diffusion, utilization, 5, 193-211
coined the term "working knowledge" to refer
to knowledge that is both specific to the work situation
and also tentative and evolving. This paper shows
how people draw on relevant evidence to revise their
working knowledge and also how they use their working
knowledge to interpret the evidence.
M. M. (1983) The role of the in-house evaluator. Evaluation
Review 7(4) 519-541.
the tension between conducting evaluations that meet
professional standards, and at the same time accomodating
the problem solving styles of practitioner audiences.
M. M. (1983). Uses of tests in school districts. In
L. M. Rudner (Ed.), Testing in the classroom: Proceedings
of the NIE Invitational Conference on Test Use. Washington,
DC: National Institute of Education.
a variety of practical decisions such as how to group
students and whom to refer to special programs, to
discern the role that tests play in each.
M. M. (1982). The role of experiments in improving education.
In C. B. Aslanian (Ed.), Improving educational evaluation
methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
three randomized experiments conducted in school districts
and asks why there aren't more. An interesting read
in the new century when the role of experiments has
once again become an issue in the research community.
M. M. (1981). Assumptions and estimates of evaluation
utility. Educational Researcher, 10(10), 6-9, 26.
critique of a study of how the United States Congress
responded to program evaluation data.