# Micheal space

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In physics and theoretical engineering, Micheal space (or Micheal spacetime), is the mathematical setting for SG Micheal’s engineering approach to unification in physics. Here, three ordinary Euclidean dimensions are combined with a fully complex time-like dimension and one further real dimension representing temporal curvature. This is a 5D model of space-time including the critical engineering feature of impedance explicitly encoded in the time-like dimension. Impedance is a summary characteristic which can be represented as a complex number which again represents the two component characteristics: permeability and permittivity. These in turn completely determine energy propagation rate, including any boundary effects, at any physical point in our universe. Micheal space is named in honor of W. Jean Micheal, father of SG Micheal.

## Contents[hide] |

## [edit] Structure

Formally, Micheal space is a five-dimensional vector space with traditional Cartesian representation (x, y, z, Zt, C) where x, y, and z represent the conventional Cartesian coordinate system / Euclidean space, Z is a complex number representing media impedance at point (x, y, z), and C is a real number (assumed non-negative) representing temporal curvature at point (x, y, z). This is a normalized system such that c, the speed of light in pure vacuum, equals unity.

## [edit] Theoretical Basis

Although the rationale for the space can be found in quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology, the actual etiology of it followed a more practical path of development. Central to RF circuit design are the concepts of permeability and permittivity. These are components of media impedance. Further, there is an engineering concept labeled ‘the impedance of space’ (or space-impedance) which is a central feature of transmission line characteristics. For engineers, this is a central feature of space-time with prime importance equivalent to dimensionality. There are two theoretical ‘stage developments’ (leaps in theory) which allow for supra-prime importance of this new space: gravitation and strong force united as distributed temporal curvature – and – realization impedance can be assigned to other components of space-time. All taken together, Micheal space was born.

## [edit] Standard Model Comparisons

There are some distinct differences between the assumptions associated with the Standard Model and those associated with this deterministic model of space-time. It is preferable to simply list out the core assumptions associated with each:

1. quantum self-interference is caused by non-locality 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are exactly that 3. forces are caused by virtual exchange of force carrying particles 1. quantum self-interference is caused by extended portions of the standing waves comprising elementary particles 2. multi-state atoms/nuclei are actually different representations (distinct instances) of possible equivalent energy states 3. there are two distinct forces in our universe: electromagnetic and another ‘mediated’ by temporal curvature

## [edit] Explicit Predictions

1. no detection of gravitons – whether directly or by secondary signatures 2. no detection of Higgs bosons – whether directly or by secondary signatures

## [edit] Further Research Required

1. deterministic control of nuclear meta-stable states 2. deterministic control of so-called multi-state atoms/molecules 3. theoretical investigation of implications of complex time including possible non-local effects 4. simulation runs of double-slit experiments following item 1 above by varying all experimental parameters: slit separation, slit size, and materials involved 5. simulation runs of various media interfaces varying media, energy range of TEW, and temporal curvature

## [edit] Letter to Stephen Hawking

Mi = (x, y, z, Zt, C) = Micheal space where x, y, and z are Euclidean dimensions, Z **represents**
the impedance of space at (x, y, z), and C temporal curvature at (x, y,
z). Key word: represents. Not equals. Not is. Simply and only **represents**.
This is crucial because I will be ‘accused’ of designing nothing more
than a triviality. There is more to it than meets the eye. Z represents
impedance meaning it encodes it and also includes an imaginary factor
similar to that corresponding element in Minkowski space. There must be
a way of combining those terms such that it represents impedance (which
can be purely resistive when considering free space, 377 Ω). It may be
something simple like multiplication. Or it may be a function of the
two. That needs to be developed. One thing that is not explicit above
is the definition c = 1. This is a kind of normalization which is in
itself a kind of metric on the space. It vanquishes trivial measures
such as ‘the meter’. It also redefines the relationship between
permeability and permittivity – and therefore impedance: μ_{0} = 1/ε_{0}, Z_{0} = μ_{0}, γ = √(1-v^{2}), l_{P} = t_{P}, E = m, and C/t_{P}
= E/h; permeability equals inverse permittivity, space-impedance equals
unity, gamma equals root one minus speed-squared, Planck-length equals
Planck-time, energy equals mass, and temporal curvature wrt Planck-time
equals energy wrt Planck’s constant. Before we move on, let’s
understand impedance a bit more. Generally, impedance contains
resistive and reactive components. It can attenuate an e-m signal or
dynamically interact with it via reactivity. Space typically attenuates
only, but various media can react. Boundaries/interfaces must be
considered. Reflections and deviations can occur (optics). Considering
above and recognizing this may not be the ‘end all’ of definitions,
let’s make a **first order correction to Mi = (x, y, z, Zit, Et _{P}/h)** where the contested elements are ‘narrowed down’.

While the 4^{th} element is still in question, the 5^{th} is more precise. The 5^{th}
is based on my previous definition of temporal curvature and linear
extension. It is a kind of measure of local energy density. It is
obviously normalized with respect to Planck and unit-less. The 4^{th} element still needs to be investigated in realistic scenarios.

While this is by no means ‘the end all’ of this space and discussion around it, it’s a fair beginning. Constructive suggestions are always appreciated.

One ‘final note’: **while impedance has a tendency to lengthen the
period between electromagnetic events, curvature has a tendency to
lengthen the period between mechanical events. This is the essence of
the theory. It is equivalent to Feynman’s statement about understanding
non-locality and QM.**

## [edit] References

Micheal, Salvatore Gerard (2004). *Space, Elastic and Impeding*. Universal Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-1581125078.

Kraus, John D. (1991). *Electromagnetics*. Mcgraw-Hill. ISBN-13: 978-0070356214.

Carroll, Sean (2003). *Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity*. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN-13: 978-0805387322.

## [edit] External Links

updated version of book above

please visit and scroll down to **A Frightening Full Circle** for a brief personal history of development of these ideas

Peter J. Carroll’s approach to the same issues however, he develops a 3D time

brief article on imaginary time as developed by Stephen Hawking and Jim Hartle