Week 5

World War I

Americans were shocked and ill-prepared
1. Response was to blame it on European decadence
Claimed America was above this it was Europe's affair

2. Demanded a decent law abiding war
US demanded Europe fight a civilized war
The rights of neutrals
Demanded the rights of a neutral to
trade with all and navigate the seas.

What's the problem with this?
Problem was that the technology
of warfare had changed

German Submarine War was an attempt to enforce
upon Britain and France to consequences of the
British blockade of Germany.
(Land V Sea Power)

The War
Armed Neutrality
Zimmerman Telegram

Wilson refused to be an "ally" instead the
United States was an "associated" power.

Looked regularly for an opportunity to find peace.
The war had to have some redemptive purpose!

Fourteen Point Plan

Among the points -
1. Open treaties
2. Freedom of seas to all
3. Free trade
4. Reduce armaments
5. Colonial system that took into account interests of native people
6. Europeans boundaries redrawn to give people own govts
Self-determination in Europe
7. League of nations

plan was optimistic, generous
Plan to fix problems that had led up to the war
to prevent future European wars
Heart of this was the League of Nations

Leon Trotsky admired Wilson's 14 points

European War Leaders -

Sir Douglas Haig
believed the cavalry charge was the most effective military maneuver.
7000 horses were killed at Ypres alone.
"The machine-gun is a much over-rated weapon"
at the battle of the Somme
lost 60,000 troops in 30 minutes-
argued that is was incompetent troops.
Had several commanders court marshaled and shot.
"Haig failed perhaps to see that a dead man cannot advance"

Secret Treaties
The US discovered these treaties after it was involved in the War.

Wilson was horrified and refused to consider these agreement
League of Nations.
WW1 pointed to the end of uncynical patriotism in Europe
- though not in the United States.
Peace Conference:

Wilson faced 2 major problems however:
1: Allies wanted revenge and retribution
2: Republican opposition in the US.

Evidence Exercise

Novel of what happened to one set of society in Britain.
Regeneration by Pat Barker.

"Behind the Lines"

Anti War Poets in Britain
The Old Man and the Young



Americans were far less disillusioned. When the war was over
- Warren Harding is elected
- the roaring 20's!

This will eventually get us to Hemingway.
Wilson Film

The Great War Power Point