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Research

How it all comes together: Integrated statement

I study the social structures of organizations and systems. How do the structures evolve, how do they affect what an organization does? I often use quantitative methods drawing on social networks and multilevel models . Typically I study small systems, in particular schools as organizations, a topic that is part of the sociology of education. Recently I've been working with the Add Health data.

 

Causal Inference and Robustness Indices

Summary statement

 

spreadsheet for calculating indices [KonFound-it!]

powerpoint with examples and calculations

Frank, K.A., Maroulis, S., Duong, M., and Kelcey, B. 2013.  What would it take to Change an Inference?: Using Rubin’s Causal Model to Interpret the Robustness of Causal Inferences.   Education, Evaluation and Policy Analysis.  Vol 35: 437-460.

       Ppt presentation

Frank, K.A., Gary Sykes, Dorothea Anagnostopoulos, Marisa Cannata, Linda Chard, Ann Krause, Raven McCrory. 2008. Extended Influence: National Board Certified Teachers as Help Providers.  Education, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis.  Vol 30(1): 3-30.

 

*Frank, K. A. and Min, K. 2007. Indices of Robustness for Sample Representation. Sociological Methodology.  Vol 37, 349-392. * co first authors.

Frank, K. 2000. "Impact of a Confounding Variable on the Inference of a Regression Coefficient." Sociological Methods and Research, 29(2), 147-194

When one reports a regression from an observational study, there is always the concern: "But have you controlled for xxx?" In this article, I index the impact of a confounding variable in terms of the product of two correlations (correlation between the confounding variable and the predictor of interest X correlation between the confounding variable and the outcome -- see figure below). This product appears in both the estimate of a regression coefficient and its standard error. Thus it can be used to quantify the impact necessary to alter a statistical inference. In the article I develop the index for the bivariate and multivariate contexts, compare it to other statistics, apply to an example, describe a reference distribution, and then interpret in the context of recent concerns about causal and statistical inferences.

The Impact of a Confounding Variable on a Regression Coefficient

impact

see also

 

Pan, W., and Frank, K.A. (2004). "An Approximation to the Distribution of the Product of Two Dependent Correlation Coefficients." Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 74, 419-443

Pan, W., and Frank, K.A., 2004. "A probability index of the robustness of a causal inference," Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 28, 315-337.

Frisco, Michelle, Muller, C. and Frank, K.A. 2007. Using propensity scores to study changing family structure and academic achievement.  Journal of Marriage and Family.  Vol 69(3): 721–741

 

spreadsheet for calculating indices [KonFound-it]

powerpoint with examples and calculations

sas program for calculating indices and related measures

stata code for calculating indices (beta version – thanks to Yun-jia Lo)

causal inference workshop

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Representation of Social Structure

I have analyzed the social networks of teachers in a school, and how that links to teachers' background characteristics and their orientations to teaching {see the figure below}. For related articles, see:

Frank. K.A. 1995. Identifying Cohesive Subgroups. Social Networks (17): 27-56

Frank, K. 1996. Mapping interactions within and between cohesive subgroups. Social Networks 18: 93-119.

Frank, K. A. and Yasumoto, J. 1996. "Embedding Subgroups in the Sociogram: Linking Theory and Image". Connections 19 (1): 43-57 .

Frank, K.A. & Yasumoto, J. (1998). "Linking Action to Social Structure within a System: Social Capital Within and Between Subgroups." American Journal of Sociology, Volume 104, No 3, pages 642-686

Krause, A., Frank, K.A., Mason, D.M., Ulanowicz, R.E. and Taylor, W.M. (2003). "Compartments exposed in food-web structure." Nature 426:282-285

Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as a Meso-Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10, pages 279-318. Book honoring Charles Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sage publications

Krause, A.E., Frank, K.A., Jones, M.L., Nalepa, T.F.,Barbiero, R.P., Madenjian, C.P., Agy, M.,Evans, M.S., Taylor, W.W., Mason, D.M., Leonard, N.L. In Press. “Adaptations in a Hierarchical Food Web of Southeastern Lake Michigan.”  Ecological Modeling.

 

Jaeger-Miehls, A. L., Mason, D. M., Frank, K.A., Krause, A. E., Peacor, S.D., and Taylor, W.W. 2009. Invasive species impacts on ecosystem structure and function: A comparison of Oneida Lake, New York, USA, before and after zebra mussel invasion. Ecological Modeling.

 

Jaeger-Miehls, A. L., Mason, D. M., Frank, K.A., Krause, A. E., Peacor, S.D., and Taylor, W.W. 2009. Invasive species impacts on ecosystem structure and function: A comparison of the Bay of Quinte, Canada, and Oneida Lake, USA, before and after zebra mussel invasion. Ecological Modeling.

 

Shaffer, David Williamson, David Hatfield, Gina Navoa Svarovsky, Padraig Nash, Aran Nulty, Elizabeth Bagley, Ken Frank, André A. Rupp, Robert Mislevy. 2009. Epistemic Network Analysis: A Prototype for 21st-Century Assessment of Learning. International Journal of Learning and Media 1(2):33-53.

 

crystalized sociogram from Frank 1996, or 1998

 

Regarding the above figure, in Frank, K. A. (1998). "The Social Context of Schooling: Quantitative Methods" Review of Research in Education, Vol, 23, chapter 5, pages 171-216.

I wrote:

     The figure establishes a basis for integrating qualitative data and information from survey instruments to characterize the processes through which teachers are affected by their social contexts. As indicated in school documents, at "Our Hamilton High," the student population has become increasingly disadvantaged over the years, as poor families have moved to the district from a nearby city and as the children of the more established wealthier families have aged. The teachers have responded in various ways to this exogenous change. Some who had difficulty adapting to the change sought early retirement. Others altered their mode of relating to thestudents, befriending the students whom they felt were most in need. In this sense the school is like others described by (Grant, 1988) and (Metz, 1990). A core of teachers relate to the new types of students by acting as "moral agents," inculcating students into a specific set of values emphasizing citizenship and responsibility by keeping firm control of the classroom and through personal example (see Bidwell, et al., 1997, for a definition and operationalization of moral agency in terms of responses to survey items, reliability=.74).
    By assigning the teachers' id numbers in the sociogram to represent their emphasis on moral agency (the lower the number the higher the rank on moral agency), I used the image in Figure 4 as a basis for inferring processes through which teachers influenced one another (Frank, 1996). To begin, moral agency is cultivated within subgroup A as the members of subgroup A engage in discussions with one another on a near daily basis (as indicated by the thick lines within the boundary of subgroup A and as observed during field work). Once a week or month one of the teachers in subgroup A engages in discussions with a teacher outside the subgroup (as indicated by the thinner lines between members of subgroup A and members of other subgroups), thus possibly influencing the member of the other subgroup. The effect of these discussions is critical to integrating the subgroups into the totality of the organization, as opinions, information, etc. that accumulate in each subgroup during daily discussions are transmitted to the other subgroup. Therefore even teachers who do not adopt moral agency in direct response to changes in the student population may be affected, through direct and indirect discussions, by the orientations of the teachers in subgroup A.
    Though others have observed the processes through which teachers socialize one another on a dyadic level (Fuller & Izu 1986; Grant, 1988; Hanson, 1978; Lightfoot, 1983; Metz, 1990; Rosenholtz & Simpson, 1990), Figure 4 represents the structure through which the socialization process occurs at the level of the school. Therefore I was able to describe moral agency as being cultivated within subgroup A and then spreading to other subgroups where it encounters competing orientations. Of course, this process could be described with an alternative orientation being cultivated in another subgroup and then moving to the members of subgroup A. Indeed the image in Figure 4 suggests an equilibrium of the system, with those in subgroup C who are mixed and moderate in their orientations mediating between the competing orientations of those at the top and bottom. Thus the image in Figure 4 represents how processes within one subgroup may generate aspects of the organizational culture that then affects all people in the school.

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Adolescent Social Contexts in Schools

I am part of the AHAA project that supplements the Add Health Data base with information from high school student transcripts. With Sam Field, I adapted my clustering algorithm to two-mode data (e.g., students and courses)

Frank, K.A., Muller, C., Mueller, A.S., 2013. The Embeddedness of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structures.  American Journal of Sociology, Vol 119(1):216-253. Media hits: Atlantic; Huffington Post; Huffington Post (Op-ed); US News and World Report; Yahoo; Health Day; RedOrbit; The Times of India; MSUToday: Psych Central: Positions and Promotions; Deccan Chronicle: wood radio: Fox Chicago: local news channels (south Carolina): Science Daily; National Science Foundation

 

Mueller, A.S.,  Pearson, J. Muller, C., Frank, K.A., Turner, A. 2010. Sizing Up Peers: Adolescent Girls’ Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 51(1) 64–78

 

 

Muller, C., Riegle-Crumb, C., Schiller, K.S., Wilkinson, L., Frank, K.A.  2009. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.  Teachers College Record Vol 112 (4) 4-5 .

 

Frank, K.A., Muller, C., Schiller, K., Riegle-Crumb, C., Strassman-Muller, A., Crosnoe, R., Pearson J. 2008. “The Social Dynamics of Mathematics CourseTaking in high school.” American Journal of Sociology, Vol 113 (6): 1645-1696.

 

Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Field, Sam; Frank, K.A.; Muller, Chandra. 2008. “Peer Group Contexts of Girls' and Boys' Academic Experiences.” Child Development. Vol. 79(1): 139 – 155.

 

Crosnoe, Robert, Anna Strassman-Mueller, and Frank, K.A. 2008. “Gender, Body Size, and Social Relations in American High Schools.” Social Forces 86: 1189-1216.

 

Barrett, Jennifer; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller; Chandra; Frank, K.A. 2007.  “Adolescent Religiosity and School ContextsSocial Science Quarterly, Vol 88(4): 1024-1037.

 

*Field, S. *Frank, K.A., Schiller, K, Riegle-Crumb, C, and Muller, C. (in press) "Identifying Social Contexts in Affiliation Networks: Preserving the Duality of People and Events. Social Networks
* coequal first authorship

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The Social Organization of the School

Jones, N., Youngs, P., and Frank, K.A., (conditionally accepted). “The Role of School-Based Colleagues in Shaping the Commitment of Novice Special and General Education Teachers.” Journal of Exceptional Children.

 

Pogodzinski, B., Youngs, P., Frank, K.A., Belman, D. 2012. "Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching." Elementary School Journal, Vol. 113 (2): pp. 252-275.

 

Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A.  2012. “Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.”  American Educational Research Journal. Vol 49 no. 6 1112-1145

Frank, K.A. 2011. “Constitution for Effective School Governance.”  Commentary in Teacher’s College Record.

Frank, K.A., Kim, C., and Belman, D. 2010. “Utility Theory, Social Networks, and Teacher Decision Making.” Pages 223-242 in Alan J. Daly editor. Social Network Theory and Educational Change.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

 

Penuel, W., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A. 2009. Analyzing Teachers' Professional Interactions in a School as Social Capital: A Social Network Approach. Teachers College Record Vol 111 Number 1.

 

Belman, D., Kelso, R., Ormiston, R., Schriver, W., Frank, K.A. 2010. “The Effect of Project Labor Agreements on the Cost of School Construction in Massachusetts” Industrial Relations. Vol 49 (1): 44-60.

 

Frank, K.A. 2009 Quasi-Ties: Directing Resources to Members of a Collective
American Behavioral Scientist.  52: 1613-1645

Frank, K.A. (2007).  Teacher Networks. Pp. 390-393, Volume 2 of the American High School: An Encyclopedia" edited by Kathryn Borman,  Spencer Cahill, and Bridget Cotner. Westport Connecticut: Praeger.

Figures EEPA Spillover Effects of PD

Social Factors and Implementation of Innovations in Organizations

Integrated presentation

Instruments and related resources

Sun, M., Penuel, W., Frank, K.A., and Gallagher, A.  Forthcoming.  “Shaping Professional Development to Promote the Diffusion of Instructional Expertise among Teachers”.  Education, Evaluation and Policy Analysis.

 

Sun, Min., Frank, K.A., Penuel, W. and Kim, Chong Min. Forthcoming. “How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders”.  Educational Administration Quarterly. http://eaq.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/03/18/0013161X12468148

 

 

Frank*, K.A., Penuel*, W.R., Sun, M. Kim, C., and Singleton, C. 2013.  “The Organization as a Filter of Institutional Diffusion.  Teacher’s College Record. *Authors listed alphabetically – equal authorship. Volume 115(1). http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=16742

 

Penuel, W.R., Sun, M., Frank, K.A., & Gallagher, H.A. 2012. Using social network analysis to study how collegial interactions can augment teacher learning from external professional development. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 103-136.

Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A.  2012. “Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.”  American Educational Research Journal. Vol 49 no. 6 1112-1145

 

Youngs, Peter, Frank, K.A., Thum, Y.M. and Mark Low. Forthcoming. “The Motivation of Teachers to Produce Human Capital and Conform to their Social Contexts” to be published in an edited volume, Laura Desimone and Andrew Porter editors.

 

Frank, K.A., Zhao, Y., Penuel, W.R., Ellefson, N.C., and Porter, S. 2011. Focus, Fiddle and Friends: Sources of Knowledge to Perform the Complex Task of Teaching.  Sociology of Education, Vol 84(2): 137-156.

 

Penuel, W. R., Frank, K.A., Sun, M., and Kim, C.  2011. Teachers’ Social capital and the Implementation of Schoolwide Reforms.  Forthcoming. Chapter 9 in Sean Kelly, Editor. Understanding Teacher Effects.  New York: Teachers’ College Press.

 

Youngs, P., Frank, K.A., and Pogodzinski, B. 2011. The Role of Mentors and Colleagues in Beginning Elementary and Middle School Teachers’ Language Arts Instruction. Chapter 8 in Sean Kelly, Editor. Understanding Teacher Effects.  New York: Teachers’ College Press.

 

Penuel, W.R., Frank, K.A., and Krause, A. 2010. Between Leaders and Teachers: Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the Effects of Distributed Leadership.  Pages 159-178 in Alan J. Daly editor. Social Network Theory and Educational Change.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

 

Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Joshi, A., & Frank, K. A. 2010. The alignment of the informal and formal supports for school reform: Implications for improving teaching in schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 57-95.

 

 

Penuel, W., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A. 2009. Analyzing Teachers' Professional Interactions in a School as Social Capital: A Social Network Approach. Teachers College Record Vol 111 Number 1.

 

Zhao, Y., Lei, J., & Frank. K. 2005. Theoretical Innovation and Empirical Testing: Research Design in Educational Technology. In Li, F. L. (ed). Research Methods in Computers for Education (jisuanji jiaoyu yanjiu fangfa). Beijing, China: Beijing Normal University Press.

 

Zhao, Yong, Lei, Jing and K.A. Frank. 2006.  “The Social Life of Technology: An Ecological Analysis of Technology Diffusion in Schools.  Pedagogies. Vol. 1 (2): 135-149.

 

Zhao, Y., Frank, K., & Ellefson, N. (2006). Fostering Meaningful Teaching and Learning with Technology pages 161-179 in  Floden R. & Ashburn, E. (Eds.). Meaningful Learning Using Technology What Educators Need to Know and Do.  Teachers College Press.

 

Frank, K. A., Zhao, Y., and Borman (2004). Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations within Organizations: Application to the Implementation of Computer Technology in Schools." Sociology of Education, 77: 148-171.

Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as a Meso-Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10, pages 279-318. Book honoring Charles Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sage publications.

Zhao, Y. and Frank, K. A., (2003). "An Ecological Analysis of Factors Affecting Technology Use in Schools." American Educational Research Journal, 40(4): 807-840.

National Board Certified Teachersline

Cannata, M. McCrory, R. Sykes, G. Anagnostopoulos, D., Frank, K.A. 2010. Exploring the Influence of National Board Certified Teachers in Their Schools and Beyond. Educational Administration Quarterly 46(4) 463–490.

 

Frank, K.A., Gary Sykes, Dorothea Anagnostopoulos, Marisa Cannata, Linda Chard, Ann Krause, Raven McCrory. 2008. Extended Influence: National Board Certified Teachers as Help Providers.  Education, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis.  Vol 30(1): 3-30.

 

Anagnostopoulos, D., Sykes, G., McCrory, R., Cannata, M., Frank, K.A. In Press. “Distinction, or Duty? The Meaning of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards for Teachers' Work and Collegial Relations.  American Journal of Education.

 

Chaos and Complexity in Organizations

Kyle Fahrbach and I modeled how people influence one another and choose with whom to interact. The combination of these processes can generate a range of equilibria characteristic of the complex system of organizational culture. See

Frank, K.A., & Fahrbach, K. (1999). "Organizational Culture as a Complex System: balance and Information in Models of Influence and Selection." Special issue of Organization Science on Chaos and Complexity, Vol 10, No. 3, pp. 253-277.

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Multilevel Models

Myazaki, Yasuo and Frank, K.A. (2005). "A Hierarchical Model with Factor Analysis Structure at Level 2" Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics

Wellman, B.A. and Frank, K.A. 2001. "Network Capital in a Multi-Level World: Getting Support from Personal Communities." pages 233-274 in Social Capital: Theory and Research, Nan Lin, Ron Burt and Karen Cook. (Eds.). Chicago: Aldine De Gruyter

Herman, S.E., Frank, K.A., Mowbray, C.T., Ribisl, K.M., Davidson, W.S., Bootsmiller, B., Jordan, L., Greenfield, A.L., Loveland, D., Luke, D. A. 2000. "Longitudinal Effects of Integrated Treatment on Alcohol Use for Persons with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders." Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research. 27 (3), 286-302.

Frank, K.A. and Yasumoto, J. 1998. "Linking Action to Social Structure within a System: Social Capital Within and Between Subgroups." American Journal of Sociology 104 (3): 642-686. (see Jstor)

Frank, K. A. 1998. "The Social Context of Schooling: Quantitative Methods". Review of Research in Education 23, chapter 5: 171-216.

Bidwell, C. E., Frank, K.A., and Quiroz, P. 1997. "Teacher Types, Workplace Controls, and the Organization of Schools." Sociology of Education, 70 (4): 285-307. (see Jstor)

Seltzer, M. H., Frank, K.A., & Bryk, A.S. 1994. "The Metric Matters: The Sensitivity of Conclusions Concerning Growth in Student Achievement to Choice of Metric." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 16 (1): 41-49.

Frank, K.A. 1993. Identifying Cohesive Subgroups. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Chicago.

Bryk, A.S. & Frank, K.A. 1991. "The Specialization of Teachers' Work: An Initial Exploration." In Schools, Classrooms, and Pupils, edited by S.W. Raudenbush, S. W., and J.D. Willms. New York: Academic Press (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).

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Environmental Sociology

With multiple coauthors from Fisheries and Wildlife, I have written about how human networks are at the intersection of global networks and the networks of ecosystems

 

Frank, K.A., Chen, I-Chien., Lee, Youngmi; Kalafatis, Scott; Chen, Tingqiaol; Lo, Yun-jia; Lemos, Maria. 2012. Network Location and Policy-Oriented Behavior: An Analysis of Two-Mode Networks of Co-authored Documents Concerning Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region.  Policy Studies Journal. Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 492–515.

 

Liu W, Vogt CA, Luo J, He G, Frank K.A, et al. (2012) Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35420. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035420.

 

            Chen, Xiaodong, Frank, Kenneth A. Dietz, Thomas, and Jianguo Liu. 2012. Weak Ties, Labor Migration, and Environmental Impacts: Toward a Sociology of Sustainability.  Organization & Environment. Vol. 25 no. 1 3-24.

 

Frank, K. A., S. Maroulis, D. Belman, and M. D. Kaplowitz.  2011.  The social embeddedness of natural resource extraction and use in small fishing communities.  Pages 309-332 in W. W. Taylor, A. J. Lynch, and M. G. Schechter, editors.  Sustainable fisheries: multi-level approaches to a global problem.  American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

 

Frank, K.A. 2011. Social Network Models for Natural Resource Use and Extraction. Social networks and natural resource management: Uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance. Pp. 180-205. Örjan Bodin & Christina Prell editors.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

N. J. Leonard, W. W. Taylor, C. I. Goddard, K. A. Frank, A. E. Krause & M. G.

Schechter. 2011. Information Flow within the Social Network Structure of a Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31:4, 629-655. Available:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2011.603651

Chen, Xiaodong, Frank, Kenneth A. Dietz, Thomas, and Jianguo Liu. Forthcoming. Weak Ties, Labor Migration, and Environmental Impacts: Toward a Sociology of Sustainability.  Organization & Environment.

 

            Frank, K.A., Mueller, K., Krause, A. and Taylor, W. (2005). "The Intersection of Global Trade, Social Networks, and Fisheries." To be published in a book by Cambridge Press, edited by William Taylor and Michael Schechter.

 

             Mueller, Katrina B., Taylor, William W., Frank, K. A., Robertson, John M. and Dennis L. Grinold 2008. “Social Networks and Fisheries: the Relationship between a Charter Fishing Network, Social Capital and Catch Dynamics.” North American Journal of Fisheries Management. Vol 28(2): 447-462.

 

            Kenneth Frank received his Ph.D. in measurement, evaluation and statistical analysis from the School of Education at the University of Chicago in 1993.  He is currently a professor in Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education as well as in Fisheries and Wildlife and adjunct in Sociology at Michigan State University.  His substantive interests include the study of schools as social organizations and the social embeddedness of natural resource use.  His substantive areas are linked to several methodological interests: social network analysis, causal inference and multi-level models. His publications include quantitative methods for representing relations among actors in a social network, robustness indices for inferences, and the effects of social capital in schools and other social contexts.  He teaches general introductory courses in research methods and quantitative methods as well as advanced courses in multivariate analysis and seminars in social network analysis and causal inference.  Ken’s current projects include a study of the effects of the Michigan Merit Curriculum on educational outcomes and how knowledge about climate change diffuses to policy-makers and educators.

 

 

 

Causal Inference and Robustness Indices

 

Representation of Social Structure

 

Adolescent Social Contexts in Schools

 

 Social Organization of the school

 

 Social Factors and Implementation of Innovations in Organizations

 

Chaos and Complexity in Organizations

 

Multilevel Models

 

Environmental Sociology

 

 

 National Board Certified Teachers

 

 

 

 

Research | Teaching | Resources | © 2006 Ken Frank