Fred Gifford
Associate Professor
Department of Philosophy
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
(517)353-1993
gifford@msu.edu

 

PRINCIPAL TEACHING AND RESEARCH INTERESTS:

Philosophy of Science (particularly philosophy of biology and medicine)
Ethics (particularly ethics in health care and the life sciences)

EDUCATION:

Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1984 (History and Philosophy of Science)
M.A., University of Pittsburgh, 1980 (History and Philosophy of Science)
B.A., University of Michigan, 1977 (Philosophy and Sociology of Science)

ACADEMIC HONORS:

Andrew Mellon Pre-Doctoral Fellowship, University of Pittsburgh, 1979-80 and 1980-81.
Graduation with Honors, University of Michigan, 1977.

ACADEMIC POSITIONS HELD:

Michigan State University:

Department of Philosophy:
Associate Professor (July 1990 to present)
Assistant Professor (Sept. 1987 to June 1990)

Center for Ethics, Humanities and the Life Sciences:
Adjunct faculty member

University of Illinois at Chicago (1984-87):

Assistant Professor, Humanistic Studies Program (Center for Educational Development)
Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Visiting Researcher (1993-94)
Bioethics Program, National Institutes of Health, Visiting Researcher (1993-94)

PUBLICATIONS

Forthcoming articles:

"Freedman's 'Clinical Equipoise' and Sliding-Scale All Things Considered Equipoise", to appear in Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (2000).

"Biotechnology", chapter to appear in Life Science Bioethics, ed. Gary Comstock. Iowa State University Press. (2000)

"Understanding Genetic Causation and its Implications for Ethical Issues in Human Genetics", to appear in Medical Genetics: Conceptual Foundations and Classic Questions, ed. Rachel Ankeny and Lisa Parker. Kluwer, Philosophy and Medicine volume. (2000)

"Gene Concepts and Genetic Concepts", to appear in The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution, edited by P. Beurton R, Falk and H-J. Rheinberger, Cambridge University Press. (2000)

Published articles:

"Comments on Fogle's 'The Dissolution of Protein Coding Genes in Molecular Biology'", Preprint 123: Working Group: Gene Concepts in Development and Evolution (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin), 1999, pp. 88-95.

Grumet R., Gifford F. 1998. "Plant biotechnology in the U.S.: issues and challenges en route to commercialization". HortScience. v. 33 (2), Apr. 1998.

"Outcomes Research and Practice Guidelines: Upstream Issues and Epistemological Issues", in Boyle, P. ed., Getting Doctors to Listen: Ethics and Outcomes Data in Context (Hastings Center's Studies in Ethics), Georgetown University Press, 1998, pp. 167-179.

Comments on case study (Authorship of Scientific Papers), Medical Humanities Review, Spring, 1995 (vol. 17, n.3), pp. 5-6.

"Community Equipoise and The Ethics of Randomized Clinical Trials", Bioethics, v. 9, n. 2, 1995, pp. 127-148.

"Teaching Scientific Integrity", The Centennial Review, v. 38, n. 2, Spring 1994, pp. 297-314.

"Genetic Traits", Biology and Philosophy, v. 5, n. 3 (July) 1990, pp. 327-347.

"Complex Genetic Causation of Human Disease: Critiques of and Rationales for Heritability and Path Analysis", Theoretical Medicine, v. 10, 1989, pp. 107-122.

"The Conflict Between Randomized Clinical Trials and the Therapeutic Obligation", The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, v. 11, n. 4,1986, pp. 347-366.

"Sober's Use of "Unanimity" in the Units of Selection Problem", Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986, v. 1, pp. 473-482.

"Astronomy and Cosmology at Angkor Wat", Science, 23 July 1976, v. 193, pp. 281-287. (with R. Stencel and E. Morbn)

Reprinted articles:

"Outcomes Research and Practice Guidelines: Upstream Issues and Epistemological Issues", The Hastings Center Report, v. 26, no. 2, Mar-Apr., 1996, pp. 38-44.
[From Boyle, P. ed., Getting Doctors to Listen: Ethics and Outcomes Data in Context, Georgetown University Press, 1998.]

"Community Equipoise and The Ethics of Randomized Clinical Trials", Monash Bioethics Review, v. 14, n. 4, October, 1995, pp. 3-18.
[Reprinting of: Bioethics, v. 9, n. 2, 1995, pp. 127-148.]

"The Conflict Between Randomized Clinical Trials and the Therapeutic Obligation",

in Erwin, et al., eds., Ethical Issues in Scientific Research: An Anthology, New York: Garland Publishing, 1994. pp. 179-200.
[Reprinting of: The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, v. 11, n. 4,1986, pp. 347-366.]

Editing:

Guest editor (with Richard Peterson), The Centennial Review, issue on "Scientific Integrity and the University", v. 38, n. 2, Spring 1994. (Wrote Introduction, pp. 213-214)

Book Reviews:

Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine, by Kenneth F. Schaffner, Philosophy of Science, Mar., 1996, v. 63, n. 1, pp. 147-148.

The New Biology: Law, Ethics and Biotechnology, by George P. Smith, Ethics, vol. 101., no. 3 (Apr., 1991), pp. 678-679.

The Structure of Biological Science, by Alexander Rosenberg, Nous, v. 25, n. 1 (Mar. 1991), 123-5.

Reasoning in Medicine: An Introduction to Clinical Inference, by Ronald Munson, Michael Resnick and Daniel Albert, Medical Decision Making, v. 9, n. 3, 1989, p. 220.

The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism: Evolutionary Dimensions of Xenophobia, Discrimination, Racism and Nationalism, edited by V. Reynolds, V. Falger and I. Vine, Ethics, Oct., 1988, pp. 183-184.

The Preservation of Species, edited by Bryan Norton, Environmental Ethics, Spring, 1988, pp. 91-94.

The Social Meaning of Biology, by Howard L. Kaye, Ethics, Oct. 1987, pp. 200-201.

Ethics in Nursing, 2nd Edition, by Martin Benjamin and Joy Curtis, Ethics, Oct. 1987, p. 216.

Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature, by Florian Von Schilcher and Neal Tennant, The Philosophical Review, Oct. 1985, pp. 602-604.

CONFERENCE/COLLOQUIUM PRESENTATIONS

"Ethical Issues in Vector Research and Human Populations", American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Washington D.C., Nov. 28, 1999.

"Adaptationism in Evolutionary Biology: Gould, Lewontin and Dennett", Dept. of Philosophy, College of Wooster, Wooster, OH, Feb. 26, 1999.

"The Terminator Gene: A Case Study in Ethics and Biotechnology", Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OSU), Wooster, OH, Feb. 25, 1999. (Also at Wooster College, Wooster, OH, Feb. 26, 1999.)

"Sliding-Scale All-Things-Considered Equipoise", Society for Health and Human Values, Spring Mtg., Youngstown, OH, Apr. 17-19, 1998.

"Biotechnology", presentation for "Life Science Bioethics Institute" at Michigan State University, May 17, 1997.

"A Critique of a Critique of Gould and Lewontin's Critique of Adaptationism", Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Program Seminar, March 12, 1997.

"A Critique of Dennett's Critique of Gould and Lewontin's Critique of Adaptationism", University of Minnesota, Center for the Philosophy of Science, Jan. 17, 1997.

"Why Not Spandrel Rather Than Adaptation?", Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association, Dec. 27-30, 1996.

"Gene Concepts and Genetic Concepts", Oct. 17-19, 1996. Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. (Invited workshop on "Gene Concepts in Evolution and Development".)

"Comments on Fogle's 'The Dissolution of Protein Coding Genes in Molecular Biology'", Oct. 17-19, 1996. Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. (Invited workshop on "Gene Concepts in Evolution and Development".)

"Dennett on Gould and Lewontin on Adaptationism in Evolutionary Biology", Colloquium for Dept. Of Philosophy, Michigan State University, Sept. 20, 1996.

"The Relations Between Science and Ethics", presentation for "Life Science Bioethics Institute" at Purdue University, May 13, 1996. (Also at Michigan State University, May 7, 1996.)

"Ethical Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology", presentation for "Life Science Bioethics Institute" at Michigan State University, May 8, 1996.

"Ethical Issues Concerning Patents in Biotechnology: The Species-Wide Transgenic Cotton Patent Case", at Iowa State University Bioethics Retreat, Bettendorf, Iowa, January 8, 1996.

"The Use of Case Studies in Teaching Research Ethics", "Teaching Survival Skills and Ethics to Emerging Scientists: A National Workshop for Faculty", Olgebay Conference Center, Wheeling, WV, May 20, 1995.

"The Interim Data Dilemma in Clinical Trials: A Case Discussion", The Bioethics Program, National Institutes of Health, Feb. 8, 1994.

"Upstream Philosophical Issues With Outcome Data", presentation at Technology Assessment meeting, The Hastings Center, Dec. 14, 1993.

"Philosophy of Biology: The Units of Selection", presentation at Kellogg Biological Station, April 18, 1993.

"Ethical Issues in Randomized Clinical Trials", lecture at Department of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital, London, August 4, 1992.

"Ethical Issues in Randomized Clinical Trials", brown bag presentation and discussion at The Hastings Center, Aug. 9, 1991.

"Ethical Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology" for workshop on "Biotechnology and Michigan Food and Agriculture", Michigan State University, Apr. 4, 1991.

"Community Equipoise and The Ethics of Randomized Clinical Trials", Annual Meeting of The Society for Health and Human Values, Washington, D.C., Oct. 26-29, 1989.

"Concepts and Their Consequences: Normative Evaluation in the Philosophy of Medicine", Annual Meeting of The Society for Health and Human Values, Washington, D.C., Oct. 26-29, 1989.

"Stopping Rules in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Assessment of Proposals by Meier and Kadane", Conference of the International Institute for Theoretical Cardiology, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, N.C., Nov. 19-20, 1988.

"Randomized Clinical Trials: An Assessment of the Stopping Rules Proposed by Meier and Kadane", Center For Ethics, Humanities and the Life Sciences, Nov. 16, 1988.

"Genetic Traits", Developmental Interest Group, Psychology Dept., Apr. 22, 1988.

"Understanding Genetic Causation and its Implications for Ethical Issues in Human Genetics", Transdisciplinary Symposium on the History and Philosophy of Medical Genetics, San Francisco, Dec. 11-12, 1987.

"Multifactorial Traits and the Transfer of a Research Problem", 1987 Summer Conference on History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology, Blacksburg, Va., June 16-20, 1987.

"Causation in Populations and the Unanimity Criterion", Philosophy Dept., Michigan State University, Mar., 1987.

"Sober's Use of "Unanimity" in the Units of Selection Problem", Philosophy of Science Association, Pittsburgh, Oct. 23-26, 1986.

"Explanations of Differences", Central States Philosophical Association, St. Louis, Oct. 10-11, 1986.

"The Units of Selection and the Structure of Evolutionary Theory", University of Illinois Committee on Evolutionary Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago, May 7, 1986.

"Causation in Populations and the Unanimity Criterion", Central Division of the American Philosophical Association, St. Louis, May 1-3, 1986.

Comments on Erich Loewy's "Donating Cadaver Organs: An Almost Binding Duty", Conference in Honor of Paul Ramsey, Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Ill., April 8-10, 1986.

"The Unanimity Criterion and the Units of Selection Problem", Central States Philosophical Association, Columbia, Missouri, Oct. 11-12, 1985.

Comments on Denis Temple's "What Needs Explaining?", Western Division of the American Philosophical Association, Chicago, April 25-27, 1985.

"Explanations of Differences", Philosophy Dept., University of Illinois at Chcago, Mar. 7, 1985.

"Explanations of Differences in Phenotype", Chicago Study Group in the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science, Nov. 12, 1984, Illinois Institute of Technology.

Roundtable Discussion, "Disciplinary Boundaries and the Rhetoric of Rationality", at meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Nov. 1, 1984, Chicago.

"Genetic Traits", Philosophy Dept., University of Illinois at Chicago, June, 1984.

"Salmon and van Fraassen and Genetic Causation", Philosophy Dept., Cornell University, Jan. 1984.

"Traits", 1983 Summer Conference on History and Philosophy of Biology, July 18-22, 1983, Denison University.

"Darwin's Teleology", Joint Atlantic Seminar in the History of Biology and Medicine, April, 1981, Princeton.