Kozak GM, Reisland M & Boughman JW. (2009) Sex differences in mate recognition for species with mutual mate choice. Evolution. 63: 353‑365.
Sexual isolation is often assumed to arise because choosy females recognize and reject heterospecific males as mates. Yet in taxa where both males and females are choosy, males might also recognize and reject heterospecific females. Here, we asked about the relative contribution of the sexes to the strong sexual isolation found in limnetic-benthic species pairs of threespine sticklebacks, which show mutual mate choice. We asked whether males and females of the two species recognize conspecifics and also prefer to mate with them. We found evidence for mate recognition by both sexes but only females prefer conspecifics. The nature of male courtship depended on which species of female they were courting, indicating that males recognized conspecific females and differentiated them from heterospecifics. However, males courted both species of females with equal vigor and changed courtship in a manner that would increase the chance of mating with heterospecifics. Females both recognized conspecifics and strongly preferred them. They responded very little to heterospecific male courtship and almost never mated with them. Therefore, males are likely to undermine sexual isolation, but females uphold it. Despite mutual mate choice and mate recognition in both sexes, females are primarily responsible for sexual isolation in these taxa.