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HST 384

MODERN MEXICO: The History of Mexico Since 1810

Michigan State University, Fall 1999

DAVID W. WALKER Office: Morrill 406B Tel.: 355-7504 Office Hrs 1-2 Tues/Thurs or by appt.

http://www.msu.edu/user/walkerd

walker@hs1.hst.msu.edu

COMING SOON....TO A CLASSROOM NEAR YOU....APOCALYPTIC VISIONS...SPRING 2000

DESCRIPTION: This is a topical survey of Mexico as an independent nation. The course focuses on recurring problems in Mexican political and economic development with special attention given to the following topics this semester: politicized economies in early national Mexico, the Porfirian hacienda, the Mexican Revolution, the state in post-revolutionary Mexico, and ongoing political and economic transformations in contemporary Mexico.

REQUIREMENTS: This is a challenging course designed to convey to students a general theoretical and empirical framework for understanding the history that is Modern Mexico. It relies heavily upon the instructor's research and publications in Mexican history. Students who cannot or will not attend class regularly and who do not wish to participate fully in classroom activities or invest the necessary time and energy to master the history of Modern Mexico should not enroll in this course. Apart from attending class, most students will need to spend an additional five to ten hours weekly on readings and other course preparations and assignments. Grading. Grades for the course are determined as follows. Exam I (33.3%), Exam-II (33.33%), Take-Home Essay (33.4%). Preparation. Students should complete all reading assignments prior to the dates listed on the course calendar. Students who have not done the readings WILL experience difficulty in placing lectures in an appropriate context and WILL NOT be able to properly participate in classroom discussions. To prepare for exams, students should use the lists of study questions provided below. Students who need additional help should see the instructor during regular office hours. Exams. The examination schedule is listed on the course calendar. There is no comprehensive final examination. Students who have other obligations on dates scheduled for exams should not enroll in this course. NO EARLY OR LATE EXAMS WILL BE GIVEN TO INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS FOR ANY REASON. Make-up exams for students who have excused absences will be scheduled at a time and place to be determined in consultation with the instructor. A grade of '0' will be recorded for any exams not made-up before the last regular class meeting (Thursday, Dec. 10). Essays. The Required Take-Home essay (5-8 pp. typewritten) should be based on a significant topic/s or problem/s raised in (1) Pancho Villa OR (2) Indians Into Mexicans and Rituals of Rule OR (3) Indians Into Mexicans and Cultural Politics. This essay must NOT take the form of a book review, but instead should be argumentative (not descriptive!) and/or broadly comparative in its format. All Takehome Essays are evaluated on the basis of the significance of the topics and/or problems raised and on the basis of how well and how appropriately these essays draw upon the selected readings. Students are encouraged to complete this assignment as early as possible during this semester. For those who wish to tempt fate and choose to procrastinate, the essay is due at the beginning of class on Tuesday, Nov. 30. LATE PAPERS WILL BE HEAVILY PENALIZED WITHOUT EXCEPTION. Students may also have an option to write for grading purposes one additional typewritten essay (5-8 pp.) that analyzes a significant problem in Modern Mexican history. Appropriate topics for an optional essay include those listed in the study guides for Exam I and Exam II, but Optional essay topics must not duplicate questions that appeared in Exam I or that students might wish to answer on Exam II. Any other optional essay topics MUST BE APPROVED IN WRITING BY THE INSTRUCTOR, OR THEY WILL NOT BE GRADED. All optional essays are due at the beginning of class on Tuesday, Nov. 30. NO LATE OPTIONAL PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED FOR ANY REASON. All essays, including exams, takehomes, and optionals are evaluated on the basis of thesis (argument), organization, evidence, and style. Students may submit rough drafts of either the required and/or optional essays to the instructor for suggested revisions. Due to time constraints, however, the instructor cannot accept rough drafts from students after Nov. 16.

CLASSROOM ETIQUETTE: Attendance and class participation is not graded, but usually students who do not attend lectures regularly will do poorly on exams which are based on a series of problems developed in the lectures. Usually these lectures will provide students with the means to construct the argument (thesis) which is required to answer weekly problems from which the exams are drawn. Similarly, participation in classroom discussions is not required, but those students who do not raise questions or make comments may not be able to fully grasp the complexity of problems treated in lecture and/or discussions. Those students who do attend class are expected to arrive and to be seated before the class begins at 4:30 p.m. Prior to the beginning of class they should have completed readings and other preparations that will make it easier for them to assimilate the content and argument of lectures. Students should remain seated in the classroom until the class is dismissed at 5:50 p.m. Students who cannot arrive on time or who do not wish to remain until class is dismissed should not take this course.

READINGS: The following are required texts for this course and can be purchased at local bookstores.

L. Bethell, ed., Mexico Since Independence

E. Krauze, Biography of Power

R. Camp, Politics in Mexico

*F. Katz, Life and Times of Pancho Villa

*D. Frye, Indians Into Mexicans

*W. Beezley, ed., Rituals of Rule

*M. Vaughan, Cultural Politics

COURSE CALENDAR: The dates and topics shown here are approximate, but students are always responsible for completing the readings prior to the dates listed. Students should keep themselves informed of changes and additions to the Calendar. Readings marked with an asterisk are to be used for the Required Takehome Essay and may or may not be useful preparation for scheduled lectures. These may be read in any order desired.

Week 1. Aug. 31 - Sep. 2

Introduction.

Lecture 1. The Colonial Heritage. Biography, chap. 1-5. Beezley, chap. 1-5*; Frye, chap. 1-4*

Problem: How did the Colonial Heritage help to shape the political and economic evolution of Mexico in the Nineteenth Century? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Weeks 2-8.)

Week 2. Sep. 7 - 9

Lecture 2. Independence, Not Revolution. Biography, chap. 6

Problem: "Mexico won its independence not by revolution, but by counter-revolution." Explain.

Lecture 3. The Age of Santa Anna--A Survey of Mexican Politics to 1867. Bethell, chap. 1; Beezley, chap. 6*; Fyre, chap. 5*

Problem: Why was Mexico so politically unstable in its first half-century as an independent nation?

Week 3. Sep. 15 - 16

Lecture 4. The Enigma Who Once Was Mexico. Biography, chap. 7

Problem: Assess the political career of Santa Anna. What roles did Santa Anna play in Mexican politics from 1810 to 1876? How can you explain his persistent political presence and his survival as a powerful political figure for more than four decades? How useful is it to describe early national Mexico as the "Age of Santa Anna"? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 2.)

Lecture 5. Hard Times: A Survey of the Mexican Economy to 1867. Coatsworth, "Obstacles"

Problem: Account for Mexico's failure to achieve economic growth in its first fifty years as an independent nation.

Week 4. Sep. 21 - 23

Lecture 5. (Cont)

Lecture 6. The Trouble With Textiles, Aborted Industrialization, 1829-56. Walker, "Textile Manufacturing"

Problem: Why did Mexico's effort to industrialize (i.e. textiles, etc. ) in the first half of the nineteenth century end in failure? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Weeks 3-5.)

Week 5. Sep. 28 - 30

Lecture 7. A Politicized Economy: The Tobacco Trade, 1821-1856. Walker, "Business As Usual"

Problem: Using the example of the tobacco monopoly and the textile industry, describe the economic and political costs such politicized economies imposed on early national Mexico. (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Weeks 3-4.)

Lecture 8. Origins of La Reforma. Biography, chap. 8

Problem: Why did Mexico attempt to radically restructure its political and economic institutions with La Reforma? How successful were those reforms? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 5.)

Week 6. Oct. 5 - 7

Lecture 9. An Economic Model for Political Change: Public Debt Speculation and La Reforma. Walker, "The Funds"

Problem: In what ways was public debt speculation related to political change (i.e. La Reforma) in mid-nineteenth century Mexico?

Lecture 10. Porfirian Politics: In Search of the Real Don Porfirio. Biography, chap. 9; Beezley, chap. 7-10*

Problem: How accurate is the old stereotype of Porfirio Díaz as a brutal and repressive dictator? How did Díaz rule Mexico so effectively for nearly three decades? (i.e, Analyze Porfirian Politics).

Week 7. Oct. 12 - 14

Lecture 11. Porfirian Labor Politics. Walker, "Labor Politics"

Problem: Trace the relationship (i.e. labor policy, etc.) between organized urban labor and the Mexican state between 1876 and 1910. Why did Porfirio Díaz's labor policies ultimately fail?

Lecture 12. Porfirian Economics: Material Gains. Bethell, chap. 2

Problem: How did Porfirio Díaz encourage substantial economic growth and development in Mexico after 1876. Why was Díaz more successful than his precedessors? Assess the successes and failures of Díaz's efforts to develop the Mexican economy after 1876. (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 8.)

Week 8. Oct. 19 - 21

Lecture 13. Porfirian Economics: The Dependency Trap.

Problem: How did Porfirio Díaz encourage substantial economic growth and development in Mexico after 1876. Why was Díaz more successful than his precedessors? Assess the successes and failures of Díaz's efforts to develop the Mexican economy after 1876. (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 7.)

EXAM I: Thursday, Oct. 21

Week 9. Oct. 26 - 28

Lecture 14. Porfirian Modernization and Agrarian Revolution, Walker, "Homegrown Revolution"; Camp, begin.

Links: Durango (State), Mexico, Map; Cuencame, Durango, Map; Map of Santa Catalina del Alamo; The Durango Project

Problem: How did political and economic modernization change the lives and livelihoods of rural people during the Porfiriato? Specifically, in what ways did that process contribute to the coming of the Mexican Revolution after 1910?

Week 10. Nov. 2 - 4

Lecture 15. Origins/Chronology of the Mexican Revolution to 1913. Bethell, chap. 3; Katz, all.*

Problem: Why did Mexico explode in violent political instability and revolution after 1910?

Lecture 16. Unleashing the Tiger: Madero and the Mexican Revolution. Biography, chap. 10

Problem: Why did Madero's presidency end in political chaos and a deepening of the Mexican Revolution in 1913 while Obregon's presidency effectively marked the end of revolutionary violence and the beginning of a new era of political consolidation for the Mexican state? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 11.)

Week 11. Nov. 9 - 11

Lecture 17. The Revolution, 1914-1920. Biography, chap. 11-13

Problem: Compare and contrast the social bases (constituencies) and political programs of Madero and Carranza with those of Villa and Zapata. Why did the Constitutionalist faction led by Carranza emerge victorious from the Revolution? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 10.)

Lecture 18. Consolidation: Alvaro Obregon. Bethell, chap. 4; Biography, 14

Problem: Why did Madero's presidency end in political chaos and a deepening of the Mexican Revolution in 1913 while Obregon's presidency effectively marked the end of revolutionary violence and the beginning of a new era of political consolidation for the Mexican state? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments jpresented in Week 10.)

Week 12. Nov. 16 - 18

Lecture 19. Plutarco Elias Calles and the Genesis of an 'Official Party', 1924-1934. Biography, chap. 15

Problem: Compare and contrast the causes of the Mexican Revolution with its consequences as of 1934. That is, by 1934 how well had the Mexican Revolution resolved the problems that provoked this protracted episode of political violence? (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Weeks 9-11.)

Lecture 20. Reform: Lazaro Cardenas, 1934-1940. Bethell, chap. 5; Biography, chap. 16; Beezley, chap. 11-15*; Vaughan, all.*

Problem: How did Cardenas reform Mexico in the 1930s? What were the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms?

Week 13. Nov. 23

Lecture 21. Mexican Miracle: The Economy, 1940-70. Bethell, chap. 6; Biography, chap. 17-21

Problem: For most of the twentieth century, the Mexican state has been able to formulate and to implement a program of economic development that favors the rich and exploits the poor. Why has Mexico been able to do this without reverting to the military dictatorship more commonly required to impose such policies in Latin America? (i.e., Describe the politics of the PRI.) (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Week 14.)

Thanksgiving Holiday, Nov. 25

Week 14. Nov. 30 - Dec. 2

Lecture 22. The Politics of the PRI. Biography, chap. 17-25; Fyre, chap. 6-7*

Problem: For most of the twentieth century, the Mexican state has been able to formulate and to implement a program of economic development that favors the rich and exploits the poor. Use your analysis of the politics of the PRI to explain why Mexico has been able to do this without reverting to the military dictatorship more commonly required to impose such policies in Latin America? (i.e., Describe the politics of the PRI.) (To answer this question fully you must also understand and incorporate relevant materials and arguments presented in Weeks 12- 13.)

TAKE-HOME ESSAY & OPTIONAL ESSAYS DUE TUESDAY, NOV. 24

Week 15. Dec. 7 - 9

Lecture 23. Mexico in Crisis. Camp, finish.

Problem: Describe the most relevant social, economic, and political aspects of the crisis that gripped Mexico in the 1980s and early 1990s. What sorts of public policies did the Salinas de Gortari administration and his successors initiate to avert a worsening of the situation? How is NAFTA related to those new reforms and Mexico? What are the advantages and dangers of those new policies (such as NAFTA)? Why hasn't NAFTA brought about an immediate improvement in the Mexican economy?

Exam II, Thursday, Dec. 9



LECTURE OUTLINES

I. THE COLONIAL HERITAGE

A. Patterns of Political Organization

1. Absolutism

2. Corporatism (State Feudalism)

3. Centralism

4. Institutional Flexibility

B. Patterns of Social Organization

1. Familism

2. Clientelism

3. Racialism

C. Patterns of Economic Organization

1. Corporatism

2. State Interventionism

3. Familism

4. Regionalism

5. Nascent Capitalism

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: authoritarian, "Obedezco, pero no cumplo", compadrazgo, caste system, peninsulares, criollos, mestizos, Republica de los Españoles, Republica de los Indios

II. INDEPENDENCE, NOT REVOLUTION

A. Background Causes

B. Stabilizing Forces

C. Precipitating Causes

D. The Hidalgo Revolt

E. Morelos

F. Iturbide

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Consolidación de Vales Reales, Ferdinand VII, Joseph Bonaparte, Viceroy Iturrigaray, Consulado, Bajio, Captain Aldama, Captain Allende, Father Hidalgo, San Miguel, Celaya, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, José María Morelos, alhondiga, Guadalupe Victoria, Vicente Guerrero, Colonel Augustín Iturbide, Viceroy Apodaca, fueros, Plan de Iguala, Viceroy O'Donoju

III. THE AGE OF SANTA ANNA: A SURVEY OF MEXICAN POLITICS TO 1867

A. The Political Disaster

B. The Costs of Disorder

C. Traditional Explanations for Political Disorder

D. Causes of Political Instability

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Pastry War, Caste War, Mesilla Territory, Yucatan, Antonio López del Santa Anna, Centralism, Federalism, caudillismo, patria chica

IV. THE ENIGMA WHO ONCE WAS MEXICO

A. Family Background

B. Military Role in Independence Movements

C. Early Career in Independent Mexico

D. 'Supreme' Leader of Conservatives

E. Last Hurrah

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Jalapa, Veracruz, Nicolasa Iturbide, San Juan de Ulloa, Plan de Casa Mata, Manga del Clavo, Inés García, General Nicolas Bravo, Scottish Rite Masons, York Rite Masons, Gómez Pedraza, Vicente Guerrero, Anastasio Bustamante, Valentín Gómez Farias, Siete Partidas, Battle of San Jacinto, María Dolores Tosta, "El Cojo", "El Gordo", Battle of Buena Vista, Mesilla, Plan de Ayutla, Benito Juárez, Porfirio Díaz, General Winfield Scott, General Zachery Taylor

V. HARD TIMES: A SURVEY OF THE MEXICAN ECONOMY TO 1867

A. THE ECONOMIC DISASTER

B. CAUSES OF THE ECONOMIC DISASTER

C. A MODEL OF THE EARLY MEXICAN ECONOMY

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: "Spirit of Enterprise," latifundia, dependency theory, empresarios, Joseph Schumpetter, prestamistas, de jure, de facto, laissez-faire

VI. THE TROUBLE WITH TEXTILES: ABORTED INDUSTRIALIZATION, 1821-67

A. THE PROBLEM

B. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF TEXTILE MANUFACTURING & MARKETING

C. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF COTTON CULTIVATION

D. CONCLUSIONS

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Banco de Avío, protectionism, Tariff of 1837, Miraflores, Martinez del Rio Hermanos, Jacob H. Robertson, manta, alcabalas, General Arista, quintal, permisos

VII. ORIGINS OF LA REFORMA

A. ECONOMIC COLLAPSE

B. ETHNIC CONFLICT

C. GENERATIONAL CONFLICT

D. REGIONAL CONFLICT

E. CHURCH-STATE CONFLICT (SECTORIAL CONFLICT)

F. IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT

G. CATALYSTS/PRECIPITATING CAUSES

H. THE REFORM

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Federalism, Caudillismo, fueros, Liberalism, Conservatism, ejido, Ley Juárez, Ley Lerdo, Ley Iglesias, Constitution of 1857

VIII. AN ECONOMIC MODEL FOR POLITICAL CHANGE: PUBLIC DEBT SPECULATION AND LA REFORMA

A. AGIOTAJE

B. CHANGING POLITICAL ECONOMY OF PUBLIC DEBT SPECULATION

C. LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM, AND PUBLIC DEBT SPECULATORS

PEOPLE, PLACES AND THINGS: agiotistas, aduanas, Public Debt Funds (15%, 17%, 8%, 10%, etc.), President Bustamante, Gregorio Mier y Terán, The Conventions, xenophobia, General Arista, French Intervention, Law on Public Credit (1851,1856)

IX. PORIFIRIAN POLITICS: IN SEARCH OF THE REAL DON PORFIRIO

A. PORFIRIO DIAZ, MAN & MYTH

B. PORFIRIAN POLITICS

C. PROBLEMS OF PORFIRIAN POLITICS

D. DISCARDING THE MYTHS

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: The Porfiriato, General Zaragoza, Plan de Tuxtepec, clientelism, juxtaposition, personalism, "pan y palo", ley fuga, Trinidad García de la Cadena, Alberto Santa Fe, Pablo Martínez del Río, Pedro Ordoñez, José María Gonzalez, Evaristo Madero, Maytorena Family, Cientificos, José Yves Limantour, Ramón Corral, Bernardo Reyes

X. PORFIRIAN ECONOMICS: MATERIAL GAINS

A. PORIFIRIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTALISM

B. SUCCESSES

C. WHY THE PROGRAM WAS SUCCESSFUL

D. PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Thomas Kinnel, Orizaba, Import-Substitution Industrialization (ISI), public infrastructure

XI. PORFIRIAN ECONOMICS: THE DEPENDENCY TRAP

A. DEPENDENCY DEFINED

B. AUTHORITARIANISM

C. ECONOMIC POLICY-MAKING

D. RESOURCE CONTROL

E. FOREIGN INTERVENTION

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: Democratic Pluralism, Cía Industrial de Orizaba, Cía Industrial de Atlixco, Cía Industrial Veracruzana, Cía Industrial de San Antonio Abad, Weetman Pearson, Desagüe de Mexico, Mexican Exploration Company, ASARCO, Guggenheim, Cananea Consolidated Copper Company, Mexican Telegraph Company, Mexican Light & Power Company, Continental Rubber Company, Edward Doheny, Waters-Pierce Oil Company, John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, Mexican Eagle Oil Company, Mexican Central Railroad, Mexican National Railroad, Veracruz Railroad, Sonora Railway, Tehuantepec Railroad, Inter-Oceanic Railroad, Cerveceria Cuahtemoc, Tlahualilo Company

XII. MODERNIZATION AND RURAL PORIFIRIAN MEXICO

A. MORELOS: SUGAR HACIENDAS

B. SONORA: THE YAQUI WARS

C. SOCONUSCO: COFFEE

D. YUCATAN: HENNEQUEN

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: John Womack Jr., Tequesquitengo, Hacienda San José Vista Hermosa, Anenecuilco, Ayala, Araoz Family, Luis García Pimentel, Cuatla, Ignacio de la Torre y Mier, Vicente Alonso, Pablo Escando, Hacienda de Atlihuayan, Yautepec, Cuernavaca, Jovito Serrano, Hacienda Hospital, Anencuilco, Emiliano Zapata, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Ramon Corral, Sonora & Sinaloa Irrigation Company, José María Leyva Cajeme, Juan Maldonada (Tetabiate), Sierra de Bacatete, Peace of Ortiz, Battle of Mocombo, Oligario Molina, Governor Izabal, Maytorena Family, Tapachula, Tehuantepec, Alan Wells

XIII. ORIGINS/CHRONOLOGY OF THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION

A. BACKGROUND CAUSES

B. FACILITATING CAUSES

C. PRECIPITATING CAUSES

D. THE EPIC REVOLUTION (CHRONOLOGY)

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: Morelos, Chihuahua, Durango, Yaqui, Cananea, Río Blanco, Creelman Interview, Francisco Madero, Pascal Orozco, Emiliano Zapata, Victoriano Huerta, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Venustiano Carranza, Alvaro Obregon

XIV. MADERO AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION

A. 1910

B. MADERO'S POLITICAL PROGRAM

C. UNKNOWN IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

D. 1913

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: Elías Martinez, San José de Gracia, Francisco Madero, Emiliano Zapata, Pascal Orozco, Felix Díaz, Bernardo Reyes, The Presidential Succession of 1910, continuismo, "Effective Suffrage and No Reelection," jefe político, Milpa Alta, Zocalo, Tepoztlan, Pedro Martinez, Azeca, Chamula, Juan Perez, Andres Iduarte, Tabasco, Abraham Gonzalez, Venustiano Carranza, Chihuahua, San Cristobal de la Casas, Tuxtla, Major Francisco Cardenas, Captain Agustín Figueres, Torreón

XV. CONSOLIDATION: ALVARO OBREGON AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION

A. THE POLITICS OF ACCOMODATION

B. URBAN LABOR

C. INDUSTRIALISTS

D. PEASANTS

E. LANDOWNERS

F. THE CHURCH

G. THE UNITED STATES

H. PANCHO VILLA

I. THE ARMY

J. PACIFICATION & CONSOLIDATION

PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS: clientelism, "pan y palo," juxtaposition, personalism, Casa del Obrero Mundial, Luis Morones, CROM, Compañia Mineral Mexicana of Coahuila, Mexican Eagle Oil Company, Gildardo Magaña, Geneve de la O., Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, Antonio Villareal, ejidos, Constitution of 1917, Treaty of Bucareli, Adolfo de la Huerta, De la Huerta Revolt

XVI. PLUTARCO ELIAS CALLES

A. BACKGROUND, REVOLUTIONARY CAREER

B. RADICAL REFORMER

C. TURN TO THE RIGHT

D. THE USES OF AGRARIAN REFORM

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: Guaymas, Sonora, Ley de Trabajo, CROM, Luis Morones, Archbishop José Mora y del Río, Cristero Revolt, José Leon toral, Madre Conchita Conspiracy, The Maximato, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascal Ortiz Rubio, General Abelardo Rodriguez, PNR, Gold Shirts

XVII. REFORMING THE REVOLUTION: LAZARO CARDENAS, 1934-40

A. LEGACY OF A FAILED REVOLUTION

B. MOVE AGAINST CALLES

C. AGRARIAN REFORM

D. LABOR REFORM

E. POLITICAL REFORM

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: Pedro Juan, Village of Huitzilpitulzco, "Six Year Plan," ejido, Confederación de Trabajadores Mexicanos (CTM), Vicente Lombardo Toledano, Partido Revolucionario Mexicano (PRM), Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Confederaciòn Nacional de Campesinos (CNC), Confederación Nacional de Organizaciones Populares (CNOP), charrismo

XVIII. MEXICAN MIRACLE: THE ECONOMY, 1940-70

A. ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

B. PUBLIC POLICY TO PROMOTE DEVELOPMENT

C. MEXICAN PERFORMANCE COMPARED TO OTHER LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: Eugene Rostow, "Take-Off Point," PEMEX, Nacional Financiera, "Dynamic Response"

XIX. WINNERS AND LOSERS

A. FINANCING INDUSTRIALIZATION?

B. ELUSIVE MIRACLE

C. A MIRACLE FOR WHOM?

XX. THE POLITICS OF THE PRI

A. THEORIES TO EXPLAIN THE POLITICS OF THE PRI

B. WHICH THEORY WORKS?

C. SOURCES OF POLITICAL STABILITY

PEOPLE, PLACES, & THINGS: CONCAMIN, CONCANACO, CNIT, charrismo, CTM, CNC, parochial culture, subject culture, participant culture, UMI

XXI. THE CRISIS IN MEXICO

A. THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

B. THE POLITICAL CRISIS

C. THE SOCIAL CRISIS

STUDY QUESTIONS (EXAM I)

1. "Mexico won its independence not by revolution, but by counter-revolution." Explain.

2. Assess the political career of Santa Anna. What roles did Santa Anna play in Mexican politics from 1810 to 1876? How can you explain his persistent political presence and his survival as a powerful political figure for more than four decades? How useful is it to describe early national Mexico as the "Age of Santa Anna"?

3. Why was Mexico so politically unstable in its first half-century as an independent nation?

4. Using the example of the tobacco monopoly and the textile industry, describe the economic and political costs such politicized economies imposed on early national Mexico.

5. Account for Mexico's failure to achieve economic growth in its first fifty years as an independent nation.

6. Why did Mexico attempt to radically restructure its political and economic institutions with La Reforma? How successful were those reforms?

7. Why did Mexico's effort to industrialize (i.e. textiles, etc. ) in the first half of the nineteenth century end in failure?

8. In what ways was public debt speculation related to political change (i.e. La Reforma) in mid-nineteenth century Mexico?

9. How accurate is the old stereotype of Porfirio Díaz as a brutal and repressive dictator? How did Díaz rule Mexico so effectively for nearly three decades? Explain and analyze Porfirian Politics.

10. How did Porfirio Díaz encourage substantial economic growth and development in Mexico after 1876. Why was Díaz more successful than his precedessors? Assess the successes and failures of Díaz's efforts to develop the Mexican economy after 1876.

11. Trace the relationship (i.e. labor policy, etc.) between organized urban labor and the Mexican state between 1876 and 1910. Why did Porfirio Díaz's policies ultimately fail?

12. How did the Colonial Heritage help to shape the political and economic evolution of Mexico in the Nineteenth Century?



STUDY QUESTIONS (EXAM II)

1. For most of the twentieth century, the Mexican state has been able to formulate and to implement a program of economic development that favors the rich and exploits the poor. Why has Mexico been able to do this without reverting to the military dictatorship more commonly required to impose such policies in Latin America? (i.e., Describe the politics of the PRI.)

2. Compare and contrast the social bases (constituencies) and political programs of Madero and Carranza with those of Villa and Zapata. Why did the Constitutionalist faction led by Carranza emerge victorious from the Revolution?

3. Compare and contrast the causes of the Mexican Revolution with its consequences as of 1934. That is, by 1934 how well had the Mexican Revolution resolved the problems that provoked this protracted episode of political violence?

4. How did Cardenas reform Mexico in the 1930s? What were the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms?

5. Why did Madero's presidency end in political chaos and a deepening of the Mexican Revolution in 1913 while Obregon's presidency effectively marked the end of revolutionary violence and the beginning of a new era of political consolidation for the Mexican state?

6. How did political and economic modernization change the lives and livelihoods of rural people during the Porfiriato? Specifically, in what ways did that process contribute to the coming of the Mexican Revolution after 1910?

7. Why did Mexico explode in violent political instability and revolution after 1910?

8. Describe the most relevant social, economic, and political aspects of the crisis that gripped Mexico in the 1980s and early 1990s. What sorts of public policies did the Salinas de Gortari administration and his successors initiate to avert a worsening of the situation? How is NAFTA related to those new reforms and Mexico? What are the advantages and dangers of those new policies (such as NAFTA)? Why hasn't NAFTA brought about an immediate improvement in the Mexican economy?