RURAL MEXICO & PORFIRIAN DEVELOPMENT

I. THE LOSERS: VILLAGERS OF MORELOS, YAQUIS OF SONORA, MAYAS OF CHIAPAS & YUCATAN

II. MORELOS: SUGAR HACIENDAS V. THE VILLAGE (JOHN WOMACK JR.)

A. THE EXPANDING SUGAR ECONOMY OF MORELOS

1. RAILROAD TO TRANSPORT SUGAR TO NATIONAL MARKET

2. NEW CANE REFINING TECHNOLOGY

3. TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR HACIENDAS:

a. INCREASING RESIDENT POP.: 250-1000 WORKERS

b. ESTATES AS "COMPANY TOWNS"--SELF-CONTAINED--STORES, SCHOOLS, POLICE, MEDICAL & CHURCH SERVICES, SKILLED LABORERS, TECHNICIANS, MANAGERS

4. LAND/WATER DISPUTES

B. IMPACT ON LOCAL COMMUNITIES

1. DECLINE OF SMALL TOWNS: STRANGLED BY HACIENDAS

2. DISAPPEARANCE/EXTINCTION OF RANCHOS & VILLAGES

a. DECLINE IN NO. OF PUEBLOS FROM 118 (1876) TO 105 (1887) DESPITE POP. INCREASE TO 100 (1905)

b. TEQUESQUITENGO: FLOODED OUT BY IRRIGATION WATERS FROM NEARBY HAC. SAN JOSE VISTA HERMOSA

c. OTHERS: ACATLIPA, CUAUCHINOLA, SAYULA, AHUEHUEPAN

3. LOSS OF POPULATION:

a. ANENECUILCO: FROM 411 TO 371 (1900-1910)

b. AYALA: 2,041 TO 1,745 (1900-1910)

4. LOSS OF LAND TO EXPANDING HACIENDAS:

a. DENOUNCE COMMUNAL LAND

b. DENOUNCE UNTITLED LAND

5. IMPACT ON VILLAGE ECONOMY:

a. VILLAGERS TURN FROM FARMING TO LIVESTOCK

b. VILLAGERS BECOME FULL OR PART-TIME HDA WORKERS (PROVIDED RESIDENT LABOR FORCE FOR HACIENDAS)

C. ACCELERATION OF HACIENDA EXPANSION, POST-1900

1. IMPETUS TO EXPAND PRODUCTION/MODERNIZE TO BETTER COMPETE IN MARKET/EXPAND AGAIN TO PAY FOR IMPROVEMENTS/ETC./50% PRODUCTION INCR. 1905-1908

2. EXAMPLES:

a.ARAOZ FAMILY IMPORTS $350,000 IN NEW MACHINERY FOR CUAHUIXTLA HACIENDA

b. LUIS GARC A PIMENTEL: $166,000 IN IRRIGATION FACILITIES FOR TENANGO HACIENDA--BROUGHT WATER FROM 60 MILES AWAY IN CUATLA RIVER

c. IGNACIO DE LA TORRE Y MIER/VICENTE ALONSO INVESTMENTS OF $210,000

3. BY 1908 THE 17 OWNERS OF 36 MAJOR HACIENDAS IN MORELOS OWNED 25% OF LAND (VIRTUALLY ALL GOOD LAND)

4. 24 MILLS IN MORELOS ACCOUNTED FOR 1/3 OF MEX. PRODUCTION IN 1908/AFTER HAWAII & PUERTO RICO, MORELOS WAS MOST PRODUCTIVE SUGAR REGION IN WORLD

D. RESISTANCE TO HACIENDA ENCROACHMENTS

1.1903 MANAGER OF PABLO ESCANDON'S ATLIHUAYAN HDA.PUT UP FENCE TAKING IN 3,500 ACRES OF YAUTEPEC'S COMMUNAL LANDS/VILLAGER'S CATTLE WHO INVADED AREA WERE CORRALED/RELEASED FOR FINES/OWNERS JAILED

2.YAUTEPEC VILLAGERS APPEAL IN LOCAL COURT/CUERNAVACA DISTRICT COURT/SUPREME COURT/APPEAL TO DIAZ FOR AID

3.JOVITO SERRANO (TOWN REP.) PUNISHED BY DEPORTATION TO YUCATAN/OTHER TOWN LEADERS MURDERED/BEATEN/DRAFTED

4.SIMILAR RESISTANCE BY SANTA MARIA, JANTETELCO, COATLAN DEL RIO, TEPALCINGO, TETELPA, JOJUTLA

5.ANENECUILCO:

a. DESPERATION IN APR. 1910--NO LANDS TO PLANT

b. HDA. HOSPITAL IN CONTROL OF DISPUTED LANDS-- "LET THEM FARM IN A FLOWERPOT..."



c. VILLAGE LEADER--EMILIANO ZAPATA--OCCUPIES LAND BY FORCE IN MAY 1910

III. THE YAQUI AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SONORA

A. PRE-PORFIRIAN ANTECEDENTS

1. YAQUI LEGACY OF STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE V. SPANISH COLONIALISM--1740 REVOLT OF YAQUIS

2. VIRTUAL AUTONOMY FOR MOST OF 19TH CENTURY

B. PORFIRIAN DEVELOPMENT FOR SONORA

1.RAILROADS, MINING/LAND SPECULATION & AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN YAQUI VALLEY

a.PORFIRIAN ELITES--RAMON CORRAL/TORRES FAMILY AS PROMINENT DEVELOPERS/TAKE YAQUI LANDS AS BALDIOS

b.TORRES FAMILY OWNS 400,000 ACRES/DEALINGS WITH FOREIGN AGRI-BUSINESS COMPANIES LIKE SONORA & SINALOA IRRIGATION COMPANY (547,000 ACRES)

2.CONVERT YAQUIS INTO LANDLESS RURAL PROLETARIAT

3. MILITARY DEFEAT OF YAQUIS PRECONDITION FOR DEVELOP.

C.YAQUI RESISTANCE

1.JOSE MARIA LEYVA CAJEME--YAQUI CHIEF--LEADS YAQUI NATION IN BATTLE 1875-1886

2.YAQUIS SUFFER MAJOR MILITARY DEFEAT/POLITICAL DISINTEGRATION IN 1886 BATTLE WITH FEDERAL ARMIES

3.YAQUI DIASPORA: MOST MOVE OUT OF VALLEY/SOME CONTINUE GUERRILA WAR WITH FEDERAL FORCES

4.JUAN MALDONADO (TETABIATE): LEADS RESISTANCE IN SIERRA DE BACATETE

5.PEACE OF ORTIZ: MAY 1897--YAQUI TO BECOME COLONISTS IN VALLEY/YAQUI ALSO DEMAND POLITICAL AUTONOMY/WAR BREAKS OUT BY 1899

6. BATTLE OF MOCOMBO: JAN. 1900--BLOODY YAQUI DEFEAT IN MAJOR CONFRONTATION WITH FEDERAL ARMY/YAQUI FIGHTERS DISPERSE INTO MOUNTAINS/GUERRILLA WAR RESUMES

D. PORFIRIAN COUNTER-INSURGENCY

1.CONCENTRATION CAMPS/PASS SYSTEM FOR YAQUIS (ABOUT 15% OF 220,553 POP. OF SONORA) TO SEPARATE GUERILLAS FROM SUPPORTERS AT WORK THROUGHOUT STATE--POLICY BEGAN APR. 1902

2.SELECTIVE DEPORTATIONS OF SUSPECTS AFTER 1904 2,000 DEPORTED 1903-07) TO YUCATAN (TO BENEFIT OF MIN. OF FOMENTO, OLIGARIO MOLINA)

3.TERROR: ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS/IMPRISONMENT OF YAQUIS--GOV. IZABAL CALLED 'EL SEGUNDO DIOS'



4.1907 ESCALATION IN USE OF DEPORTATION: WHOLESALE ROUNDUP OF YAQUIS

5.1908 GOVT. THREATENS TO DEPORT ALL YAQUIS

6.SUSPENSION OF MASS DEPORTATION AFTER JULY 1908:

a.OPPOSITION OF LOCAL HACENDADOS

b.DEPRESSION IN HENNEQUEN INDUSTRY

7.ABOUT 15,000 YAQUIS DEPORTED TO YUCATAN

E.LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES FOR PORFIRIAN REGIME:

1.PUT LOCAL HACENDADOS LIKE MAYTORENA FAMILY IN POLITICAL OPPOSITION

2. SURVIVING YAQUIS IMPLACABLE ENEMIES OF PORFIRIATO--AMONG FIERCEST SOLDIERS IN 1910 REVOLT

IV. THE COFFEE ECONOMY OF SOCONUSCO AND THE PEOPLE OF CHIAPAS

A. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COFFEE ECONOMY

1. RAILROAD CONSTRUCTED BETWEEN TAPACHULA & TEHUANTEPEC, 1901-08/PORT FACILITIES

2. RISING PRICE OF COFFEE/$0.20 (1881)-$0.76 (1894)

3. GERMAN CAPITAL/ENTREPRENEURSHIP/MARKETS

4. FORCED DIVISION OF COMMUNAL LANDS IN CHIAPAS AFTER 1893: CREATE LANDLESS PEASANT COMPELLED TO WORK FOR WAGES/FREE LAND FOR PLANTATION OPERATORS

5.INCREASE IN COFFEE PRODUCTION: 21.5 MILLION POUNDS, 1910

B. SOCIAL IMPACT:

1. VILLAGERS LOSE LAND TO PLANTATIONS/RAILROADS

2. BASIC FOODSTUFFS/EXPENSIVE/SCARCE: DECLINING MAIZE PRODUCTION AS MORE LAND PUT IN COFFEE (2/3 DECLINE) FROM 1895-1909 CORN PRODUCTION

3. LOW WAGES/DEBT PEONAGE/EXPLOITATION OF LABOR CONTRACTORS

V. HENNEQUEN ECONOMY AND THE MAYAS OF THE YUCATAN

A. EXPANDING HENNEQUEN ECONOMY

1. FOREIGN DEMAND FOR BINDING MATERIAL (SISAL)

2. FOREIGN CAPITAL/RAILROADS/NEW TECHNOLOGY

3. FROM 41,864 BALES (1876) TO 680,000 (1911)

B. SOCIAL IMPACT

1. DECLINING LABOR MOBILITY: DEBT PEONAGE

2. DESTRUCTION OF EJIDOS: 66 BROKEN 1878-1912

3. LOW WAGES/MALNUTRITION/FOR WORKERS

4. REDUCED CORN PRODUCTION AS LAND PUT IN HENNEQUEN

5. IMPACT OF BOOM-BUST CYCLES IN WORLD MARKET: WAGES CUT IN BAD YEARS (1907)