ORIGINS OF

THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION



I. BACKGROUND CAUSES

A. RURAL DISCONTENT

1. TRADITIONAL VILLAGES: LOSS OF LAND--I.E. MORELOS

2. YAQUIS IN SONORA

3. LAND CONFLICTS IN CHIHUAHUA & DURANGO

B. URBAN DISCONTENT

1. URBAN WORKING CLASS UNREST AFTER 1906

2. CATASTROPHES OF CANANEA/RIO BLANCO

C. MIDDLE-CLASS DISCONTENT

1. AVENUES FOR UPWARD MOBILITY BLOCKED BY PORFIRIAN ELITES AND FOREIGN COMPANIES

2. MIDDLE-CLASS CONCERN ABOUT POLITICAL INCORPORATION

D. FAILURE OF DIAZ'S PROGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT

1. POST-1900 REVERSES/ECONOMIC STAGNATION

2. REVOLUTION MADE BY THOSE WHO GAINED LEAST

II. FACILITATING CAUSES:

A. WEAKNESS OF MEXICAN ARMY

1. DELIBERATELY WEAK/STRONG ARMY THREATENED DIAZ

2. IMPOSSIBILITY OF DEFENSE AGAINST U.S./NO EUROPEAN THREAT AFTER 1867

3. SOCIAL REVOLUTION NOT PERCEIVED THREAT

4. RAILROADS DID NOT MAKE REVOLUTION IMPOSSIBLE

B. CLOSENESS TO U.S.

1. SANCTUARY TO REBELS

2. ARMS MARKET

3. IDEOLOGICAL FACTORS:

a. U.S. AS MODEL FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC REFORMS

b. U.S. RACISM/DISCRIMINATION/MILITARY AGGRESSION

c. ECONOMIC DOMINANCE/PREPONDERANCE

C. U.S. ANTIPATHY TOWARDS DIAZ GOVERNMENT

1. DIAZ POLICY OF PLAYING OFF U.S. V. EUROPE CAPITAL

2. HIGH STAKES IN OIL CONCESSIONS: U.S. V. BRITISH

3. TOLERANCE OF ANTI-DIAZ REBELS/U.S. TROOPS THREATEN INTERVENTION

III. PRECIPITATING CAUSES

A. ELITE CONFLICT

1. ATTEMPT BY POLITICAL OUTS (ESPECIALLY IN NORTH) TO TAKE POWER

2. DAMAGED/THREATENED BY FOREIGN INVESTMENTS

B. SUCCESSION CRISIS

1. STRUGGLE TO SUCCEED DIAZ: CREELMAN INTERVIEW-1908-DIAZ ENCOURAGES COMPETITION IN VICE-PRESIDENT ELECTION

2. FRANCISCO MADERO FIRST RUNS AS VICE-PRESIDENT CANDIDATE/CAMPAIGN DRAWS IMMEDIATE MASS SUPPORT/REELECTION CLUBS/GOVT. OPPOSITION/ PERSECUTION/MADERO RUNS AS PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE

3. FRAUD/REPRESSION USED TO GUARANTEE DIAZ 1910 VICTORY/MADERO PLANS REVOLT AGAINST DIAZ (PLAN DE SAN LUIS POTOSI)

C. ELITE CHALLENGE TO DIAZ WILL UNLEASH POPULAR FORCES MADERO CANNOT CONTROL

1. MADERO COALITION TAKES POWER IN 1911

2. COALITION SPLITS BY 1912: REVOLTS BY OROZCO, ZAPATA

3. CHALLENGE FROM RIGHT BRINGS DOWN MADERO IN 1913

4. NEW COALITION TO DEPOSE HUERTA IN 1914

5. ANTI-HUERTA COALITION SPLITS AFTER 1915: CARRANZA/OBREGON V. VILLA/ZAPATA

6. NORTHERN ELITES/MIDDLE-CLASS V. POPULAR FORCES (URBAN V. RURAL)

7. POPULAR FORCES DEFEATED BY 1916/U.S. ROLE

8. OBREGON OVERTHROWS CARRANZA IN 1919

9. OBREGON DEFEATS ATTEMPTED REBELLION IN 1923/CONSOLIDATES POWER/END OF VIOLENT PHASES OF MEXICAN REVOLUTION