LABOR POLITICS IN PORFIRIAN MEXICO

I. INTRODUCTION/HISTORIOGRAPHY

A. ASSUMPTIONS THAT DIAZ POLICY BRUTALLY REPRESSIVE

B. ASSUMPTIONS THAT DIAZ POLICY NEUTRAL, LAISSEZ-FAIRE

II. THESIS

A. DIAZ LABOR POLICY FLEXIBLE & SOPHISTICATED:

1. CLIENTELISTIC RELATIONS WITH URBAN LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

2. LABOR LEADERS POLICED LABOR MOVEMENT

3. RARELY USED AGAINST LABOR--UNNECESSARY

B. LABOR POLICY BROKE DOWN BECAUSE OF ECONOMIC REVERSES/EROSION OF PERSONAL RELATIONS WITH LABOR LEADERS

C. DIAZ POLICIES 'INSTITUTIONALIZED' AFTER REVOLUTION

III. WHY DIAZ WAS ABLE TO CAPTURE LABOR MOVEMENT

A. COLONIAL LEGACY OF PATERNALISTIC STATE

B. LABOR & CAUDILLOS IN EARLY NATIONAL MEXICO

1. ARTISANS AS POLITICAL BROKERS--BETWEEN POLITICIANS & MASSES

2. SANTA ANNA & ARTISANS

3. JUAREZ & LERDO GAVE PUBLIC BUILDING, SUBSIDY, DONATIONS TO MODERATE JUAN CANO-WHO TOOK CONTROL OF GRAN CIRCULO--BROKE TEXTILE STRIKE/POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR LERDO IN 1876

C. PLAN DE TUXTEPEC



1. PROMISED CONCESSIONS TO URBAN LABOR

2. DIAZ'S CLIENTS IN GRAN CIRCULO SABOTAGE WAR EFFORT

3. WHEN TOOK POWER, PURGED LABOR ORGANIZATIONS/CREATED GRAN CIRCULO HEADED BY CLIENTS

IV. DIAZ AND ORGANIZED LABOR

A. REWARDS TO CLIENTS:

1. FOR ORGANIZATIONS: BUILDINGS, SUPPLIES, SUBSIDIES, NIGHT SCHOOLS, FAVORS, CEMETERY PLOTS, WATER SERVICE, LIBRARY, WORKSHOPS,ETC.

2. FOR LEADERS: PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT/PUBLIC OFFICE

3. FOR WORKERS: RISING WAGES/EMPLOYMENT/OPPORTUNITIES

B. FUNCTIONS OF CAPTIVE LABOR ORGANIZATIONS:

1. POLICE LABOR MOVEMENT: I.E. MAY 1, 1891

2. MOBILIZE POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR DIAZ:

a. BIRTHDAY PARTIES--14SEP87--DIAZ--!VIVA LOS SOCIEDADES DE OBREROS!

b. LOCAL LABOR LEADERS WINED & DINED BY CAMPAIGNERS

c. MASS DEMONSTRATIONS FOR DIAZ: 3JUN87

3. POLITICAL EDUCATION/INDOCTRINATION

a. WORKING CLASS PRESS

b. NIGHT SCHOOLS

4. MUTUALISM/COOPERATIVISM

a. MODERATE ALTERNATIVE TO RADICAL TRADE UNIONISM

b. WELFARE FUNCTIONS

c. TO CONTROL DISSIDENTS

5. MEDIATION BEFORE CONFRONTATION

a. DISCOURAGED STRIKES

b. SOUGHT GOVT. MEDIATION OF STRIKES



V. BREAKDOWN OF DIAZ'S RELATIONS WITH LABOR

A. ECONOMIC SETBACKS--POST-1900 DEPRESSION/INFLATION

1. END TO TREND OF UPWARD REAL WAGES (15%--1877-1898)

2. REAL WAGES FOR URBAN LABOR FALL TO 1877 LEVEL

B. EROSION OF LABOR SUPPORT FOR PORFIRIAN GOVT.

1. LABOR ORGANIZATIONS S DISCREDITED BY GOVT. INACTION

2. MODERATE LABOR LEADERS AGED/NO SUCCESSORS

3. RISE OF YOUNG LABOR RADICALS IN 1906

a. LABOR WOOED BY PLM/DIAZ OPPOSITION

b. VIOLENCE AT CANANEA IN SUMMER 1906

c. RADICAL GCOL IN VERACRUZ TEXTILE FACTORIES:"IN CASE OF DIFFICULTY WITH THE FIRMS WE WILL USE THE STRIKE, IF THE STRIKE DOES NOT ACCOMPLISH ANYTHING, WE WILL RESORT TO DYNAMITE OR REVOLUTION."

C. LAST ATTEMPT TO REESTABLISH CLIENTELISTIC RELATIONS/SALVAGE LABOR POLICY

1. PURGES RADICAL GCOL IN ORIZABA

2. GOVT. SUPPORT FOR MODERATES IN GCOL

3. OFFICIAL PRESS PRAISES WORKERS/DEFENDS STRIKES

4. PUBLIC OFFICIALS AFFIRM RIGHT TO STRIKE PEACEFULLY

5. GCOL ORGANIZING CAMPAIGNS/STRIKES IN AUTUMN 1906

6. OPPOSITION FROM FACTORY OWNERS IN CIM:

a. ATTEMPT TO BREAK UNION IN PUEBLA STRIKE

b. NATION-WIDE LOCKOUT IN DECEMBER 1906 TO BREAK GCOL

D. DIAZ MEDIATION OF LABOR CONFLICT

1. BETRAYS LABOR CLIENTS WITH ARBITRATION DECISION:



a. PRESSURE/THREATS FROM FACTORY OWNER

b. PRISONER OF ECONOMIC DEVEL. POLICIES

c. WITH ECONOMIC DECLINE, DIAZ FACED ZERO-SUM GAME FOR FIRST TIME

2. LABOR REBELS AT RIO BLANCO

a. WORKERS RIOT/SACK TOWN/BURN OUT MODERATES

b. CLASS WAR BREAKS OUT AS LABOR POLICY BREAKS DOWN

c. REVOLT PUT DOWN, BUT IRREPARABLE HARM TO DIAZ

VI. POST-PORFIRIAN LABOR POLICIES

A. SIMILAR POLICY OBJECTIVES/INSTRUMENTALITIES

1. GET WORKING CLASS SUPPORT FOR POLITICIANS

2. PACIFY LABOR FOR CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT

B. LATER POLICY IS INSTITUTIONALIZED

1. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (1911)

2. CONSTITUTION OF 1917

3. LEY DE TRABAJO

C. EXAMPLES

1. MADERO

a. USED POLITICAL SUPPORT/BALLOTS/BULLETS

b. PERSECUTED RADICALS/FAVORED MODERATES

c. TROOPS ALSO MACHINE-GUNNED RIOTERS AT RIO BLANCO IN 1912

2. HUERTA: TRIED TO REVIVE CONGRESO OBRERO

3. CARRANZA

a. SOUGHT POLITICAL/MILITARY SUPPORT OF COM

b. AFTERWARDS CRUSHED RADICAL COM--1916

c. ENCOURAGED CROM IN 1918



4. OBREGON

a. USED CROM IN REVOLT AGAINST CARRANZA-1919

b. USED CROM AS POLITICAL SUPPORT

c. REWARDED LUIS MORONES WITH POWER/PRIVILEGES

5. CARDENAS

a. USED CTM IN STRUGGLE V. CALLES

b. OPTED TO MAINTAIN CTM AS CLIENT & TO CHALLENGE FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES IN 1938

c. INCORPORATED CTM INTO OFFICIAL PARTY