MADERO AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION



I. INTRODUCTION: EVENTS IN 1910

A. ELIAS MARTINEZ--THE 'BIRD MAN' OF SAN JOSE DE GRACIA

1. ONE DAY IN 1910 DECIDED TO FLY FROM ROOFTOPS INTO THE CLOUDS OVER SAN JOSE DE GRACIA

2. MADE FRAMEWORK, WITH WINGS OF GRASS MATTING--STRAPPED THIS TO HIS BACK & CLIMBED UP ASH TREE

3. CALLED DOWN TO FRIEND BELOW TO THROW ROCK TO FRIGHTEN HIM OUT OF TREE, SO COULD FLY LIKE A BIRD

4. FRIEND THREW ROCK, ELIAS MARTINEZ LEAPED--AND FELL TO GROUND AND NEARLY KILLED HIMSELF

5. OBSERVERS ARGUED THAT FAILED BECAUSE FORGOT TO MAKE HIMSELF A TAIL AND A BEAK OR BECAUSE HIS FRIEND HAD NOT SCARED HIM ENOUGH

B. FRANCISCO MADERO

1. TRIED FIRST ELECTION, THEN REBELLION TO TURN PORFIRIO DIAZ OUT OF OFFICE

2. AS PRESIDENT IN 1911, MADERO TRIED TO REFORM POLITICS AS A WAY TO REMAKE MEXICAN SOCIETY

3. JUST AS MARTINEZ'S FRIENDS THREW ROCKS TO FRIGHTEN HIM INTO FLIGHT, SO TOO MADERO'S RIVALS THREW ROCKS TO DESTROY THE MOVEMENT

4. JUST AS MARTINEZ WAS UNABLE TO FLY, MADERO'S PROGRAMS FAILED AND HE WAS ASSASINATED

5. ARGUMENTS THAT MADERO FAILED BECAUSE HIS PROGRAMS WERE TOO MODERATE OR TOO RADICAL, AKIN TO SAYING THAT MADERO 'FORGOT TO MAKE HIMSELF A TAIL AND BEAK' OR THAT HIS FRIENDS "HAD NOT SCARED HIM ENOUGH."

C. MADERO'S REBELLION & REFORM PROGRAM MOST IMPORTANT

EVENTS IN MEXICO FROM 1910 TO 1913, JUST AS MARTINEZ'S FLIGHT MOST AMAZING EVENT IN SAN JOSE DE GRACIA IN THESE SAME YEARS--WAS THERE SOME RELATION TO THE FAILURES OF THESE TWO MEN?--CANNOT DETERMINE THIS WITHOUT FIRST EXAMINING MADERO'S POLITICAL APPARATUS & HIS PLANS TO OPERATE IT

II. MADERO'S POLITICAL PROGRAM

A. AS PREVIEWED IN BOOK--PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION OF 1910

1. SATISFACTION WITH MOST OF DIAZ'S MATERIAL ACHIEVEMENTS

2. WARNED THAT MEXICO FACED EVENTUAL UPHEAVAL IF POLITICAL SYSTEM NOT REFORMED

3. CONTINUISMO: PRACTICE OF POLITICIANS REMAINING IN OFFICE/ BY CONTROLLING ELECTORAL PROCESS/RIGGING ELECTIONS/ONLY WAY TO REMOVE OFFICEHOLDERS WAS TO RECUR TO ARMED REVOLT--DAMAGING ECONOMY & DISRUPTING SOCIETY

4. MADERO WANTED TO RETAIN BEST ASPECTS OF PORFIRIAN ADMINISTRATION, SUSTAIN ECONOMIC GROWTH, MAINTAIN SOCIAL STABILITY

5. "EFFECTIVE SUFFRAGE AND NO REELECTION"

a. CAMPAIGN SLOGAN--"A REAL VOTE & NO BOSS RULE"

b. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION WAS ANTI-REELECTIONIST PARTY

6. NO INTEREST IN SOCIAL OR ECONOMIC ISSUES/I.E. LAND REFORM

7. DECENTRALIZATION OF POWER WAS PRINCIPAL PROGRAM:

a. TO GIVE STATES/TOWNS MORE POWER

b. WOULD GIVE REGIONAL ELITES REAL POWER, TAKE POWER AWAY FROM CENTER ELITE

c. TARGETS: FOREIGNERS, JEFE POLITICOS, CIENTIFICOS

d. ASSIGN MORE POWER TO GOVERNORS--INCLUDING REFORM--SO NATIONAL GOVT. DID NOT ENACT REFORM

B. PROBLEMS OF MADERO'S PROGRAM OF DECENTRALIZATION

1. MANY PROBLEMS COULD NOT BE RESOLVED BY LOCAL REFORM--I.E. LABOR REFORM

2. STATES DID NOT HAVE ADMINISTRATIVE/FISCAL RESOURCES TO IMPLEMENT REFORM PROGRAMS

3. PREVENTED MADERO FROM DEVELOPING BASE OF POPULAR SUPPORT

a. DESPITE ELECTION CAMPAIGN IN 1910, REVOLT IN 1910-11, NEW ELECTION CAMPAIGN, HOLDING OFFICE OF PRESIDENT AFTER 1911, MADERO WAS UNKNOWN IN MANY PARTS OF THE MEXICAN COUNTRYSIDE

b. EXAMPLE OF MADERO'S ANONOMITY:

(1) INFORMANT FROM VILLAGE OF MILPA ALTA, 14 MILES FROM ZOCALO--HEARD NOTHING OF MADERO-- FIRST NEWS OF REVOLUTION IN SPRING OF 1911 WHEN ZAPATA & TROOPS ARRIVED:

"THIS WAS THE FIRST THING WE HEARD OF THE REVOLUTION. ONE DAY A GREAT CHIEF BY THE NAME OF ZAPATA ARRIVED FROM MORELOS. HE WORE GOOD CLOTHES--A FINE BROAD HAT AND SPATS. HE WAS THE FIRST GREAT MAN TO SPEAK TO US IN NAHUATL. ALL HIS MEN WERE DRESSED IN WHITE--SHIRTS, WHITE PANTS, AND THEY ALL WORE SANDALS. ALL THESE MEN SPOKE NAHUATL MORE OR LESS AS WE SPOKE IT. WHEN ALL THESE ENTERED MILPA ALTA, WE UNDERSTOOD WHAT THEY SAID. EACH OF THE ZAPATISTAS CARRIED PINNED TO HIS HAT A PICTURE OF HIS FAVORITE SAINT, SO THAT THE SAINT WOULD PROTECT HIM. ZAPATA STOOD AT THE HEAD OF HIS MEN AND ADDRESSED THE PEOPLE OF MILPA ALTA IN THE FOLLOWING WAY: "COME JOIN ME! I HAVE RISEN IN ARMS AND I HAVE BROUGHT MY COUNTRYMEN WITH ME. WE DON'T WANT OUR FATHER DIAZ TO WATCH OVER US ANY MORE. WE WANT A BETER PRESIDENT TO CARE FOR US. JOIN THE REVOLUTION WITH US SINCE WE ARE TIRED OF THE FEW CENTS THE RICH PAY US. THERE ISN'T ENOUGH TO EAT OR BUY CLOTHES. I WANT EVERY MAN TO HAVE HIS OWN PLOT OF LAND. HE WILL SOW IT AND REAP CORN, BEANS, AND OTHER GRAINS. WHAT DO YOU PEOPLE SAY?"

(2) INFORMANT IN TEPOZTLAN--PEDRO MARTINEZ--: REPORTED REVOLUTION CAME TO VILLAGE IN 1911--"THE REVOLUTIONARIES ENTERED AZTECA FOR THE FIRST TIME EXACTLY ON MARCH 17, 1911. THERE WEREN'T MANY OF THEM, ONLY ABOUT THIRTY, LED BY LUCIO MORENO. THEY WORE THEIR SOMBREROS ON THE BACK OF THEIR HEADS AND HELD THEIR MUSKETS IN THEIR HANDS AS THEY RODE IN . . . THEY SHOUTED 'LONG LIVE THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE! LONG LIVE FRANCISCO I. MADERO! AND RUSHED TO THE PALACIO TO BURN IT."--REBELS SOON LEFT WITH NO RECRUITS--INFORMANT LATER SUMMED UP THIS PHASE OF THE REVOLUTION--"THE MADERO REVOLUTION WAS ALMOST OVER, AND STILL I HADN'T JOINED IN THE FIGHTING. MADERO WAS ALREADY PRESIDENT WHEN EMILIANO ZAPATA BEGAN TO BE HEARD OF. IT WAS IN 1913 WHEN HIS NAME WAS TALKED ABOUT, BUT WE JUST CRITICIZED. THEN YOU BEGAN TO HEAR ABOUT EMILIANO ZAPATA EVERYWHERE. IT WAS ZAPATA THIS AND ZAPATA THAT. BUT WE SAID THAT HE WAS ONLY A PEASANT, NOT AN INTELLECTUAL MAN."--THIS INFORMANT CONCLUDED MADERO BECAME PRESIDENT "BUT HE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT HE WAS DOING."--THIS INFORMANT FINALLY JOINED THE FIGHTING IN 1914 WHEN ENLISTED IN ZAPATA'S ARMIES FIGHTING CARRANZA'S MEN FROM THE NORTH

(3) INFORMANT--CHAMULA INDIAN--JUAN PEREZ : JOLOTE--IN CHIAPAS: KNEW NOTHING OF REVOLUTION UNTIL 1913--WHILE IN TAPACHULA JAIL LEARNED THAT PRESIDENT MADERO HAD BEEN ASSASINATED--OTHER PRISONER VOLUNTEERED TO FIGHT AGAINST PRESIDENT'S ASSASINS TO HAVE SENTENCE COMMUTED--JAILER SENT ALL PRISONERS TO SERVE IN FEDERAL ARMY-INFORMANT PREPARED TO FIGHT MADERO'S ENEMIES, BUT WAS INDUCTED INTO ARMY COMMANDED BY VICTORIANO HUERTA--WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR MADERO'S DEATH.

(4) INFORMANT--ANDRES IDUARTE--GREW UP IN TABASCO--PER MADERO REGIME--"I DETECTED NO SIGNS OF IT ANYWHERE. THE FACT IS THAT THE REVOLUTION . . . DID NOT REACH TABASCO UNTIL 1914."

III. WHY MADERO REMAINED SO UNKNOWN IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

A. FEW STATE GOVERNORS ENACTED MEANINGFUL REFORMS

B. TWO REFORM GOVERNORS:

1. ABRAHAM GONZALEZ IN CHIHUAHUA

2. VENUSTIANO CARRANZA IN COAHUILA

C. TYPES OF REFORMS ENACTED BY GOVERNORS

1. MORALIZING CAMPAIGNS: ANTI-ALCOHOL, GAMBLING, PROSTITUTION

2. EDUCATION, ABOLITION OF JEFE POLITICOS

3. MINOR LABOR REFORMS/MINOR REFORMS TO CURTAIL HDA ABUSES

4. EVEN LIMITED REFORMS OF CARRANZA GAVE HIM A LOCAL BASE OF POPULAR SUPPORT THAT MADERO LACKED/MADE RESISTANCE TO HUERTA POSSIBLE AFTER 1913

D. MADERO HAD NO CONTACT WITH MASSES

1. TWO NETWORKS CONNECTED CENTRAL GOVT. TO MASSES

a. FORMAL: JEFE POLITICOS/RURALES

b. INFORMAL: PRIESTS, SCHOOLTEACHERS, PEDDLERS, ETC.

2. MADERO'S REFORMS HELPED TO WEAKEN/ELIMINATE FORMAL NETWORK/DID NOT DEVELOP INFORMAL

3. SINCE HAD NO POPULAR REFORMS TO OFFER, COULD NOT DEVELOP CLIENTELISTIC RELATIONS LIKE DIAZ

E. MADERO REVOLT WAS REGIONALLY BASED--IN NORTH

1. MADERO NEVER COMMANDED INTEGRATED REBEL BAND

2. MADERO NEVER HAD POLITICAL PARTY TO MOBILIZE MASSES

3. MADERO CAME TO POWER WITH HELP OF RIVAL REGIONAL REVOLTS BASED ON DIFFERENT ISSUES--I.E. ZAPATA WITH LAND REFORM

F. MADERO'S DECENTRALIZATION PROGRAM PROVOKED CONFLICT

1. GUIDELINES FOR GOVERNORS: RESTORE PEACE, DISCHARGE REBEL TROOPS, HOLD SPECIAL ELECTIONS FOR STATE & LOCAL OFFICES

2. RESTORING PEACE & DISARMING REBEL TROOPS AT CROSS-PURPOSES:

a. MADERO FAILED TO USE REBEL TROOPS AS LOCAL EMISSARIES

b. ATTEMPT TO DISARM ZAPATISTAS PROVOKES WAR

3. STAGING LOCAL ELECTIONS OFTEN PROVOKED, NOT RESOLVED CONFLICT

a. ABRAHAM GONZALEZ V. PASCAL OROZCO FOR GOVERNORSHIP OF CHIHUAHUA IN SUMMER 1911 ELECTION/MADERO FORCES OROZCO TO WITHDRAW/OROZCO SOON AFTER REVOLTS

b. IN CHIAPAS SET OFF VIRTUAL WAR BETWEEN THOSE WHO WANT CAPITAL AT CHIAPAS AND THOSE WHO WANT CAPITAL AT TUXTLA

G. IN THE END, MADERO'S GOVERNMENT FELL SO EASILY BECAUSE HAD NO MASS SUPPORT

1. ASSASINATION ON NIGHT OF FEB. 22, 1913 BY MAJOR FRANCISCO CARDENAS AND CAPT. AGUSTIN FIGUERES DID MORE TO MOBILIZE AND POLITICIZE MEXICO THAN ANY ACT BY HIS ADMINISTRATION

a. CARRANZA & FOLLOWERS BEGIN RECRUITING IN NORTH

b. PANCHO VILLA & ALVARO OBREGON SOON LEADING HUGE ARMIES IN CHIHUAHUA AND SONORA

c. EMILIANO ZAPATA BEGINS MAJOR RECRUITMENT IN CENTER IN 1913 AND 1914

d. HUERTA ORDERS MASSIVE CONSCRIPTION TO FILL ARMIES

2. MADERO WAS SILK-HAT REVOLUTIONARY:

a. STORY COMES FROM INCIDENT WHEN MADERO'S TROOPS OCCUPIED TORREON IN SPRING OF 1911--REBELS LOOT TOWN--CELEBRATE VICTORY--NIGHTFALL BEGIN MARCHING THROUGH TOWN--LEADER OF PARADE WORE SILK HAT AND WAS BEATING A COMMODE RESEMBLING A DRUM--BYSTANDER EXPLAINED REAL PURPOSE OF COMMODE AND WHAT IT WAS USED FOR--REBEL LEADER THREW DOWN COMMODE--CONTINUED MARCHING WITH SILK HAT

b. LIKE REBEL COMMANDER, MADERO WAS LEADING THE RE-ELECTIONIST, BUT OPPOSED VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL DISORDER--IF MADERO HAD KNOWN HOW REVOLUTION WAS NORMALLY USED, HE WOULD HAVE THROWN IT AWAY IN DISGUST--LIKE THE COMMODE-- AND MARCHED ON IN HIS SILK HAT--

3. MADERO LEADING REBEL VICTORY DID NOT MEAN HE COULD ATTEMPT REVOLUTION IN MEXICO, ANYMORE THAN ELIAS MARTINEZ PUTTING ON WINGS MEANT HE COULD FLY

4. BUT MADERO COULD DO IN DEATH, WHAT HE COULD NEVER DO IN LIFE:

a. MADERO SHORT, FUNNY-LOOKING, HIGH PITCHED VOICE, SPIRITUALIST VEGETARIAN--OFTEN OBJECT OF RIDICULE

b. MADERO IN DEATH, BECAME THE DAVID WHO SLAY PORFIRAN GOLIATH--A CHRIST-LIKE FIGURE MARTYED FOR HIS PEOPLE--THE APOSTLE OF DEMOCRACY--"IN DEATH THE REFORMER BECAME, IN THE POPULAR MIND, A REVOLUTIONARY."