THE ENIGMA WHO ONCE WAS MEXICO

I. CHILDHOOD/FAMILY BACKGROUND

A. BORN 21 FEB. 1794 IN JALAPA; WAS NAMED AFTER SPANISH FATHER FROM 'RESPECTABLE' FAMILY IN SANTA ANNA, CASTILE

B. FATHER WAS CORREDOR--'A BROKER'

C. SANTA ANNA HAD LITTLE SCHOOLING; APPRENTICE CLERK IN VERACRUZ; VERACRUZ INFANTRY SCHOOL CADET AT AGE 16 (JUNE 1810)

II. MILITARY ROLE IN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS

A. CAMPAIGNS IN N.E. MEXICO & VERACRUZ

B. SHOT AMERICAN FILIBUSTERS CAPTURED IN 1813 IN TEXAS

C. FORGED DRAFTS ON ARMY FUNDS TO PAY GAMBLING DEBTS (SAVED FROM COURT MARTIAL BY MAKING RESTITUTION--I.E. HAD TO SELL ALL PERSONAL PROPERTY INCL. SABER)

D. REMAINED ARDENT ROYALIST UNTIL VERY NEAR TO END

1. 23 MAR. 1821 -- 0400 HRS. --ATTACKS REBELS--PROMOTED TO LT. COLONEL IN ROYALIST FORCES

2. 23 MAR. 1821 -- 1400 HRS. -- JOINS REBELS--ATTACKS ROYALISTS -- PROMOTED TO COLONEL

3. NOW ARDENT REBEL COMMANDER: ATTACKS VERACRUZ 24JUN1821:

"Comrades! You are going to put an end to the great work of reconquering our liberty. You are going to plant the Eagle of the Mexican Empire, humiliated three centuries ago on the plains of Otumba, on the banks of the humble Tenoya, where the Castilian flag was first unfurled."

4. ATTACKS FAILS--SANTA ANNA AS OUTRAGED REBEL:

"Veracruz! The cry for your extermination will be from this time on the watchword of our men going into battle: in all juntas and Senates the demand for your ruin will be added to all deliberation. The memory of Carthage, from whose grandeur you are as far removed as the humble grass from the stately oak, should make you tremble. Mexicans! Carthage never offended Rome as Veracruz has Mexico . . . God help you!

5. SANTA ANNA NEVER TAKES VERACRUZ BY FORCE; SURRENDERS AFTER O'DONOJU SIGNS PEACE TREATY/DID GET PROMOTION TO BRIGADIER GENERAL/DID NOT GET GOVERNORSHIP OF VERACRUZ

III. EARLY MILITARY & POLITICAL CAREER IN INDEPENDENT MEXICO

A. SANTA ANNA PLAYS ROLE OF LOYAL ITURBIDE SUPPORTER, JAN-OCT, 1822.

1. COURTS EMPEROR'S 60-YR. OLD SISTER NICOLASA (SANTA ANNA WAS 28)

2. GETS CHOICE ASSIGNMENT OF LEADING ATTACK ON SPANISH FORTRESS, SAN JUAN DE ULLOA IN HARBOR OF VERACRUZ

3. ATTACKS FAIL; SANTA ANNA FIRED IN NOV. 1822

B. SANTA ANNA REBELS AGAINST ITURBIDE, 6 DEC. 1822

1. ATTACKS PORT OF VERACRUZ WITH 400 MEN/PROCLAIMS REPUBLIC

2. EXPROPRIATES $112,000 IN CUSTOMS REVENUES

3. AFTERWARDS ACCEPTS GUADALUPE VICTORIA AS HEAD OF MOVEMENT--PLAN DE CASA MATA (1 FEB. 1823)

4. ITURBIDE ABDICATES 19 FEB. 1823 (ARMY DEFECTED)

5. EXILED (EXECUTED WHEN RETURNED FOLLOWING YEAR)

C. REWARDED WITH GOVERNORSHIP OF YUCATAN--RESIGNED AFTER EMBARASSED NAT. GOVT. WITH PLAN TO INVADE CUBA IN 1825

D. RETIREMENT, 1825-1828

1. PURCHASES 'MANGA DEL CLAVO' IN VERACRUZ

2. MARRIES INES GARC'IA: HOMEMAKER, SEVERAL CHILDREN

E. RETURN TO NATIONAL POLITICAL PROMINENCE

1. JOINS LIBERAL FORCES TO PUT DOWN REVOLT BY CONSERVATIVE GEN. NICOLAS BRAVO--JAN. 1828

a. SCOTTISH RITE MASONS: CONSERVATIVES

b. YORK RITE MASONS: LIBERALS

c. SANTA ANNA SUPPORTED LIBERALS, BUT FAMILY & FRIENDS MEMBERS OF CONSERVATIVE SCOTTISH RITE

2. JOINS LIBERALS IN REVOLT AGAINST ELECTION OF CONSERVATIVE GOMEZ PEDRAZA (CREOLE) AS PRESIDENT--SEP. 1828 IN CONTEST V. GUERRERO (MESTIZO)/PEDRAZA FORCED BY BARRACKS REVOLT/URBAN RIOTS TO FLEE MEXICO CITY IN NOV. 1828./GUERRERO DECL. PRESIDENT-ELECT BY CONGRESS IN JAN. 1829

F. THE MAKING OF A HERO, THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SPANISH

1. SPANISH FORCES (2,600) LAND AT TAMPICO IN JULY 1829

2. SPANISH SURRENDER WITHOUT FIGHT IN AUGUST 1829 IN EXCHANGE FOR SUPPLIES, MEDICAL AID, TRANSPORT OUT

3. SANTA ANNA ACCEPTED SPANISH SURRENDER--A HERO:

"As is customary in Mexico, applause to the victor, ovations on all sides. The General Congress saw fit to give me the title of "Well Deserving of the Fatherland" [Benem'erito de la Patria]; the government promoted me to the rank of General of Division, sending me the insignia to be conferred upon me . . . in the place where the invaders surrendered their arms. Some legislators gave me scrolls of honor and the people called me the Victor of Tampico."

G. FALL OF GUERRERO GOVT.

1. CONSERVATIVE REVOLT IN DECEMBER 1829 LED BY VICE-PRESIDENT ANASTASIO BUSTAMANTE AFTER GUERRERO GOVT. ANNOUNCED LIBERAL REFORM (REVOLT BACKED BY CHURCH)

2. SANTA ANNA DID NOT JOIN REVOLT/BUT DID NOT AID GUERRERO WHO WAS OUSTED IN JAN. 1830

3. SANTA ANNA RESIGNS/RETURNS TO MANGA DEL CLAVO

4. EXECUTION OF GUERRERO IN FEB. 1831 CREATES LIBERAL BACKLASH/SANTA ANNA PROCLAIMS AGAINST BUSTAMANTE IN JAN. 1832--OCCUPIES VERACRUZ/BUSTAMANTE OUT BY DEC. 1832

H. THE FIRST SANTA ANNA PRESIDENCY:

1. ELECTED PRESIDENT OF LIBERAL GOVT. IN FEB. 1833

2. VICE-PRESIDENT WAS LIBERAL DOCTOR FROM ZACATECAS, VALENTIN GOMEZ FARIAS

3. SANTA ANNA RESIGNS FROM OFFICE/RETURNS TO MANGA DEL CLAVO IN APRIL 1833

4. GOMEZ FARIAS ASSUMES PRESIDENCY/ANNOUNCES LIBERAL REFORMS--ABOLITION OF FUEROS/RESTRICTIONS ON CHURCH/CONSERVATIVE REVOLT BY GENERAL ARISTA PUT DOWN BY SANTA ANNA

5. SANTA ANNA OVERTHROWS HIS OWN GOVERNMENT IN APR. 1834:

a. CLOSES CONGRESS/EXILES GOMEZ FARIAS

b. SUSPENDS CONSTITUTION OF 1824

c. REVOKES ANTI-CLERICAL LAWS

d. CREATES NEW CENTRALIZED, CONSERVATIVE GOVT.--SEVEN LAWS"

e. PUTS DOWN FEDERALIST REVOLT IN ZACATECAS IN 1835/BUT REVOLT SPREADS TO TEXAS

I. THE TEXAS CAMPAIGN, 1836

1. LEADS 8,000-MAN ARMY ACROSS DESERT N.E. TOWARDS TEXAS

2. OVERRUNS TEXANS GARRISON AT SAN ANTONIO/EXECUTES SURVIVING REBELS IN MARCH 1836/ADDITIONAL MASSACRES AT GOLIAD

3. CAUGHT SLEEPING AT SAN JACINTO IN APR. 1836

a. NEEDED OPIUM TO CALM NERVES FOR INTERVIEW WITH SAMUEL HOUSTON

b. SIGNS PUBLIC & SECRET TREATIES OF SURRENDER/TOURS U.S.

4. RETURNS IN DISGRACE TO VERACRUZ IN FEB. 1837

IV. THE POLITICAL RESURRECTION OF SANTA ANNA: RETURN TO POWER

A. THE PASTRY WAR, 1838-39

1. SANTA ANNA DEFENDS VERACRUZ FROM FRENCH INVASION IN DEC. 1838

2. NARROWLY ESCAPED CAPTURE IN FRENCH RAID ON 5 DEC. 1838 ON SANTA ANNA'S HEADQUARTERS (NOT RECOGNIZED)

3. FRENCH WITHDRAW; SANTA ANNA LEADS COUNTER-ATTACK ON WHITE CHARGER; FRENCH FIRE GRAPE-SHOT FROM CAPTURED CANNON; HORSE KILLED, SANTA ANNA INJURED LEFT LEG WILL BE AMPUTATED

4. SANTA ANNA PROCLAMATIONS FROM HIS DEATHBED:

a. WANTS TO BE BURIED WHERE FELL--ON BATTLEFIELD

b. "May all Mexicans, forgetting my political mistakes, not deny me the only title which I wish to leave my children: that of a 'good Mexican.'

c. LIES ABOUT BATTLE: CLAIMS 25 MEXICANS/100 FRENCH DEAD/THAT FRENCH COMMANDER WAS FORCED INTO WATER & DROWNED

5. SANTA ANNA SURVIVES WOUNDS TO EMERGE NATIONAL HERO/NAMED AS INTERIM PRESIDENT IN 1839 WHILE BUSTAMANTE GOES TO FRONT TO BATTLE LIBERAL REBELS

6. SANTA ANNA RESIGNS IN JULY 1839 [WITH $1 MILLION IN BOOTY FROM NATIONAL TREASURY]

7. JOINS BUSTAMANTE IN JULY 1840 TO PUT DOWN REVOLT BY GEN. ARISTA

B. A NEW ERA FOR CONSERVATISM, 1841-1844

1. PROCLAIMS AGAINST BUSTAMANTE IN SEPTEMBER 1839:

"There is no reason to sing of Victory

Government Thief (Bustamante)

Glory is for Santa Anna

For you, Hell:

You are entirely evil

And soon we shall see you

in a shanty."

2. THE INAUGURATION--17 OCT. 1841

a. CHURCH SINGS "TE DEUMS"

b. CREATES CENTRALIZED DICTATORSHIP--BASES ORGANICAS

c. ATTEMPTS TO RECREATE COLONIAL ORDER--I.E. GIVES FORMAL RECOGNITION TO INTEREST GROUPS--ATTEMPT TO REVIVE CORPORATISM

3. THE REALITY: MASSIVE CORRUPTION

a. CLOSED GOVT. OFFICES FOR GAMBLING FESTIVAL AT SAN AGUSTIN, ETC.

b. TREASURY LOOTED/POLITICAL INFLUENCE MARKETED

c. CULT OF PERSONALITY: SANTA ANNA THEATER/LARGER THAN LIFE STATUE WITH ARM POINTING NORTH (FOR RECAPTURE OR TEXAS or TOWARDS NATIONAL TREASURY BUILDING)

d. GRAND FUNERAL FOR BURIAL OF SANTA ANNA'S LEG:

(1) CRITICS CIRCULATED PETITION FROM DEAD PROTESTING ACCEPTANCE OF LEG

(2) LEG MIGHT CARRY REVOLUTIONARY GERMS/LEAD REVOLT IN THE HEREAFTER/DEAD DON'T WANT TO RULED BY LEG

4. PERSONAL SCANDAL: SEX LIVES OF THE RICH AND FAMOUS

a. INES DIES IN AUGUST 1844/SANTA ANNA IN LOVE WITH 15-YEAR OLD MARIA DOLORES TOSTA

b. MARRIAGE IN OCT. 1844 IN NATIONAL CATHEDRAL/MARRIAGE BY PROXY SINCE SANTA ANNA STILL IN MOURNING

C. FALLING OUT OF POWER

1. TREASURY BANKRUPTED BY LATE 1844/TROOPS UNPAID

2. GEN. PAREDES REVOLTS IN NOV. 1844/URBAN RIOTS IN MEXICO CITY IN DECEMBER 1844

3. RIOTERS ATTACK SANTA ANNA THEATER (NAME CHANGED); TOPPLE & DESTROY STATUE; DISINTERRED PRESIDENT'S LEG; DRAG LEG THROUGH STREETS

4. CONGRESS REBELS/THREE WAY STRUGGLE FOR POWER:

a. GEN. PAREDES IN GUADALAJARA

b. SANTA ANNA IN QUERETARO

c. GEN. HERRERA IN MEXICO CITY (VICTORIOUS AFTER SANTA ANNA'S TROOPS DEFECT BECAUSE UNPAID)

D. A BRUSH WITH DEATH

1. SANTA ANNA ATTEMPTS TO FLEE COUNTRY DISGUISED AS MULETEER, BUT AMBUSHED BY INDIANS IN HUASTECA

2. TELL-TALE LEG--WOOD LEG IDENTIFIED HIM AS "EL COJO"--"THE IMMORTAL THREE FOURTHS"--"EL GORDO"

3. INDIANS PLAN TO BOIL SANTA ANNA ALIVE IN POT WITH CHILE & SPICES/WRAP IN BANANA LEAVES/PRESENT RESULT TO NATION AS "GREAT TAMALE"

4. SAVED BY INTERVENTION OF LOCAL PRIEST & BRIBES/EVENTUALLY EXILED IN JAN. 1845/FAREWELL ADDRESS (P. 219)/TAKES UP RESIDENCE IN HAVANA

V. SANTA ANNA AND THE WAR WITH THE UNITED STATES, 1845-1848

A. PAREDES REVOLTS V. HERRERA IN EARLY 1846/PAVES WAY FOR SANTA ANNA'S RETURN

B. SECRET CORRESPONDENCE WITH GOMEZ FARIAS TO PLAN RESISTANCE TO EXPECTED AMERICAN INVASION

C. SECRET MEETINGS WITH POLK REPRESENTATIVES: WILL BE ALLOWED TO PASS THROUGH AMERICAN BLOCKADE

D. SANTA ANNA RETURNS TO MEXICO IN AUG. 1846: "SLAVE TO PUBLIC OPINION"--ACCEPTS PRESIDENCY--GOMEZ FARIAS AS V.P.

E. CAMPAIGN AGAINST TAYLOR IN N.E.:

1. 25,000-MAN ARMY V. TAYLORS FORCES IN 3 DAY BATTLE AT BUENA VISTA, NEAR SALTILLO

2. MEXICANS ON VERGE OF VICTORY, SANTA ANNA RETREATS TO ANNOUNCE VICTORY IN MEXICO CITY, LEAVES FIELD TO TAYLOR AND AMERICANS/NORTH MEXICO LOST

F. CAMPAIGN AGAINST SCOTT:

1. AMERICANS LAND 10,000-MAN FORCE AT VERACRUZ/LIGHT RESISTANCE

2. SANTA ANNA IN CHARGE OF MEXICO CITY DEFENSE/INACTION/DISPUTES WITH RIVAL GENERALS/INTERNAL POLITICAL CONFLICTS MAKE RESISTANCE IMPOSSIBLE/I.E. SANTA ANNA DEPOSES GOMEZ FARIAS & DOUBLE-CROSSES LIBERAL IN MARCH 1847/REPUDIATES FORCED LOAN OF CHURCH TO FINANCE WAR

3. U.S. OCCUPIES MEXICO CITY IN SEPTEMBER 1847/EXILE SANTA ANNA

VI. THE LAST HURRAH

A. CONSERVATIVES REVOLT AGAINST ARISTA GOVT. IN 1853

B. ARRIVAL OF SANTA ANNA IN VERACRUZ IN APR. 1853/SANTA ANNA INVITED BACK TO PAVE WAY FOR NEW CONSERVATIVE ORDER HEADED BY EUROPEAN MONARCH

C. SANTA ANNA INSTEAD MAKES HIMSELF--"SERENE HIGHNESS"--CREATES COURT, NOBILITY--SOLD MESILLA TRACT TO FINANCE GOVT.

D. LIBERAL REVOLT--PLAN DE AYUTLA--PLAN FOR REFORM

E. LIBERAL VICTORY--AUG. 1855--SANTA ANNA FLEES TO WEST INDIES/SWINDLED BY NEW YORKERS

F. SANTA ANNA OFFERS SERVICES TO MAXIMILLIAN IN 1864

G. ATTEMPTS TO RETURN IN 1867 TO HELP JUAREZ FIGHT MAXIMILLIAN AND THE FRENCH INVADERS

H. ALLOWED TO RETURN IN 1872/DIES POOR, BLIND, & FORGOTTEN IN MEXICO CITY IN 1876 (SAME YEAR PORFIRIO DIAZ TAKES POWER--WILL DOMINATE MEXICO UNTIL 1911)