A SURVEY OF MEXICAN POLITICS, 1821-1867

I. POLITICAL DISASTER:

A. NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS FALL: 1823, 1829, 1832, 1835, 1841, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1853, 1855, 1858, 1860, 1864, 1867

B. NO ELECTED PRESIDENT COMPLETED FULL TERM IN OFFICE AFTER GUADALUPE VICTORIA, 1824-1828

II. COSTS OF POLITICAL DISORDER:

A. CIVIL WARS:

1. CULMINATE IN BLOODY THREE YEARS WAR, 1858-1860

2. CASUALTIES & PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION/ECONOMIC DISRUPTION

3. MILITARISM: DEFENSE BUDGETS ENORMOUS

B. FOREIGN INTERVENTION: A TARGET OF OPPORTUNITY

1. SPANISH RECONQUEST--1829 (COSTS)

2. TEXAS SEPARTIST REVOLT--1835-36 (TERRITORY)

3. FRENCH PASTRY WAR--1839 (INDEMNITIES)

4. U.S. INVASION--1846-48 (TERRITORY)

5. ALLIED OCCUPATION OF VERACRUZ--1862 (DEBTS)

6. FRENCH INTERVENTION--1862-1867 (INDEPENDENCE)

C. TERRITORIAL DISINTEGRATION

1. CENTRAL AMERICA BREAKS AWAY--1822

2. TEXAS--1836

3. APACHES CONTROL NORTHERN TERRITORIES--1840S

4. YUCATAN DECLARES INDEPENDENCE--1845

5. YUCATAN REJOINS MEXICO--1846

6. LOSS OF CAL-NM-AZ-COL--1848 (1/2 NAT'L TERR)

7. CASTE WAR OF YUCATAN--1848

8. MESILLA TERRITORY SOLD TO U.S.

9. NEGOTIATIONS TO SELL YUCATAN, SONORA--1854-55

III. TRADITIONAL EXPLANATIONS FOR THE POLITICAL DISORDER

A. POLITICAL EXPERIENCE: PROBLEMS OF 'NEW' NATION

B. CULTURAL DEFECTS: MILITARISM, VIOLENT CULTURE

C. PERSONALITY DEFECTS: ITURBIDE/SANTA ANNA AS ABERRANT PERSONALITIES-- I.E. COMPARISON WITH WASHINGTON, LINCOLN

D. RACISM: RACIAL MISCEGENATION--'INDIAN BLOOD'

IV. CAUSES OF POLITICAL DISORDER

A. SECTORIAL/INSTITUTIONAL CONFLICT

1. AGENDA FOR POLITICAL MODERNIZATION:

a. CORPORATE PRIVILEGE & PROPERTY RIGHTS: CHURCH, VILLAGE, ARMY

b. FISCAL AND REGULATIVE REORGANIZATION

(1) ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AS RIGHT/NOT PRIVIL.

(2) DISMANTLE RESTRICTIONS ON TRADE/INDUSTRY --FREE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

--ELIMINATE INTERNAL CUSTOMS DUTIES

--END LICENSES, CONCESSIONS

--ABOLISH LEGISLATION TO PROTECT INDIANS

(3) ABOLISH STATE MONOPOLIES

--TURN ECO. ACTIVITY OVER TO PRIVATE SECTOR

--PASS PUBLIC/CORPORATE PROPERTY OVER TO PRIVATE SECTOR

2. LIBERALS V. CONSERVATIVES: OLD ORDER V. CHANGE

a. CONSERVATIVES: DOMINANT FORCE THRU 1855

(1) BROKE WITH SPAIN IN 1821 TO PREVENT CHANGE

(2) TAKE POWER BY FORCE: 1829, 1835, 1841,1853, 1858, 1864

(3) CREOLES, OLDER GENERATION, SENIOR ARMY OFFICERS, INDIAN VILLAGERS, PRIESTS, ENTREPRENEURS, POP. OF OLD COL. CENTERS--I.E. GROUP THAT BENEFITTED MOST FROM COLONIAL ORDER

b. LIBERALS: DOMINANT FORCE AFTER 1855

(1) UNITED BY VAGUE DESIRE FOR CHANGE

(2) EXPLOITED IMPRACTICALITY OF CONSERVATIVE PROGRAM (OLD ORDER NON-FUNCTIONAL)

(3) TOPPLE CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENTS: 1823, 1836, 1845, 1848, 1855, 1860, 1867

(4) INITIALLY LACKED POLITICAL BASE: NO CONSENSUS FOR CHANGE

(5) IMPLEMENT SIGNIFICANT REFORMS, 1856-67

(6) MESTIZOS, YOUNGER GENERATION, FROM PROVINCES, IMPORT MERCHANTS, JUNIOR OFFICERS, LAWYERS--GROUP PREJUDICED BY

OLD ORDER

3. CHURCH V. STATE CONFLICT (CORPORATE RIGHTS)

B. REGIONAL CONFLICT

1. REGIONAL ECONOMIES/REGIONAL LOYALTIES

2. CENTRALISM V. FEDERALISM/CAUDILLISMO

3. MEXICO CITY V. PROVINCES--"PATRIA CHICA"

C. ETHNIC CONFLICT

1. CREOLES V. MESTIZOS V. INDIANS

2. SPECTER OF RACE WAR: CASTE WAR OF THE YUCATAN

3. MESTIZOS SEEK UPWARD MOBILITY

4. MESTIZOS MOST LIKELY TO BE LIBERALS

D. ECONOMIC REVERSES

1. SHRINKING ECONOMY--LESS INCOME FOR GOVT.

2. DECLINING EXPORTS-LESS REVENUE FOR GOVT.

3. IMPETUS FOR REORGANIZING ECONOMY

4. CHRONIC BANKRUPTCY OF STATE--AGGRAVATES CONFLICT

E. FOREIGN AGGRESSION: ESPEC. U.S., FRANCE, SPAIN

F. NO POLITICAL CONSENSUS/SPANISH CROWN 'EXTERNAL'

1. NO LEGITIMACY FOR STATE

2. NO SENSE OF NATIONALISM

G. POLITICIZED ECONOMIES

1. NO INSULATION BETWEEN POLITY & ECONOMY

2. EVERY MOVEMENT OF ECONOMY CREATES POL. CONFLICT

3. EXAMPLES: TOBACCO, TEXTILES, PUBLIC DEBT

4. FUNCTION OF ON-GOING STATE ECO. INTERVENTIONISM