OBREGON: THE POLITICS OFACCOMMODATION



I. CLIENTELISM/ PAN Y PALO/ JUSTAPOSITION/ PERSONALISM

A. SIMULTANEOUS APPEALS FOR SUPPORT FROM LABOR AND INDUSTRIALISTS, PEASANTS AND HACENDADOS

B. PLACATES CATHOLICS AND ANTI-CATHOLICS

C. SOUGHT FAVOR WITH U.S. AND FOREIGN INVESTORS and MEXICAN NATIONALISTS ALIKE

II. URBAN LABOR

A. ROLE IN CARRANZA PACT WITH CASA DEL OBRERO MUNDIAL

B. SECRET PACT WITH LUIS MORONES & CROM FOR VOICE IN GOVT. AFTER OVERTHROW OF CARRANZA

1. LABOR LEADERS GET LUCRATIVE POSTS IN GOVT: GOVERNORSHIP OF FEDERAL DISTRICT/ HEAD OF NATIONAL ARMAMENTS FACTORY/ TELEPHONE COMPANY/ETC

2. CROM MEMBERSHIP GROWS FROM 50,000 TO 1.2 MILLION

3. GOVT. MEDIATION ALLOWS CROM TO WIN STRIKES!

C. LABOR PARTY TO MOBILIZE WORKING CLASS TO VOTE FOR OBREGON/ CLIENTS IN ORGANIZED LABOR REPRESS RADICALS (PARALLELS TO DIAZ POLICY)

III. FACTORY OWNERS

A. OBREGON PREACHES MODERATION:

1. STRESS ON "EQUILIBRIUM", NOT SOCIALISM (PORFIRIAN RHETORIC)

2. SEEKS INCREASED STANDARD OF LIVING FROM MORE PRODUCTIVITY, NOT FROM REDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH

B. OBREGON CAREFUL NOT TO DAMAGE/THREATEN POWERFUL INTERESTS

1. IN FOREIGN-OWNED/CRITICAL NATIONAL INDUSTRIES, OBREGON SIDES WITH CAPITAL & MANAGEMENT AGAINST LABOR

2. VERACRUZ FISHERMAN'S STRIKE OF 1922: OBREGON CRITICIZES GOVERNOR WHO ORDERED COMPANY NOT TO HIRE NONUNION LABOR (I.E. WAS US-OWNED COMPANY)

3. WHEN GUARDS & SOLDIERS AT U.S.-OWNED COMPAÑÍA MINERAL MEXICANA IN COAHUILA FIRED ON STRIKING MINERS, OBREGON CONDEMNED VICTIMS FOR INTRANSIGENCE

4. IN 1924 STRIKE AT EL AGUILA PETROLEUM, OBREGON ORDERED LOCAL POLITICAL OFFICIALS TO EJECT OCCUPYING WORKERS FROM REFINERY/ ALLOWED COMPANY TO HIRE SCAB LABOR (FOREIGN SUPPORT FOR OBREGON WAS KEY ELEMENT IN DEFEAT OF DE LA HUERTA REVOLT)

IV. PEASANTS/AGRARIAN REBELS

A. FRIENDLY POSTURE TOWARDS ZAPATISTAS: OBREGON FLED TO MORELOS TO ESCAPE ARREST AFTER ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN IN 1920

B. INCORPORATED REMNANTS OF ZAPATA ARMY INTO FEDERAL ARMY: ZAPATISTAS GILDARDO MAGAÑA AND GENOVEVE DE LA O. COMMISSIONED AS GENERALS IN FEDERAL ARMY

C. ANTONIO DÍAZ SOTO Y GAMA FOUNDS NATIONAL AGRARIAN PARTY/ CAMPAIGNS FOR OBREGON/ PARTY OFFICIALS WIN LUCRATIVE POSITIONS IN CONGRESS/ ANTONIO VILLAREAL MADE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE

D. IMMEDIATE LAND REFORM/OFFICIAL RECOGNITION OF AGRARIAN LAND SEIZURES IN MORELOS, DURANGO, ELSEWHERE WHERE NECESSARY TO ASSURE PEACE

E. EARLY INCORPORATION OF ZAPATA AS HERO OF REVOLUTION AS EARLY AS 1922

V. LANDOWNERS

A. LIMITED AGRARIAN REFORM

1. AT THE SAME TIME THAT COURTED ZAPATISTAS, TOLD JALISCO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN 1919 THAT HE WAS OPPOSED TO EJIDOS AS UNPRODUCTIVE

2. AGRARIAN REFORM LIMITED TO 2 MILLION ACRES (8X CARRANZA)-WHOLESALE ONLY IN MORELOS (SUGAR ALREADY DEVASTATED); IN YUCTAN ONLY IN NON-HENNEQUEN PRODUCING REGIONS (SATISFIED AGRARISTAS UNDER FELIPE CARRILLO PUERTO); IN DURANGO, RECOGNIZED OCCUPATIONS AT OCUILA, PASAJE, PEÑÓN BLANCO, ETC.-CONVERTED AGRARISTAS INTO POLITICAL CLIENTS-FOUGHT FOR OBREGON IN DE LA HUERTA REVOLT)

B. DID NOT EXPROPRIATE PROPERTY OF US-LANDOWNERS: I.E. HEARST ESTATES IN NORTHERN MEXICO LEFT UNTOUCHED/IN RETURN HEARST NEWSPAPER CHAIN PRAISED OBREGON GOVT FOR COMMITMENT TOLAW & ORDER

VI. CATHOLIC CHURCH

A. CATHOLIC HOSTILITY, BUT OBREGON FLEXIBLE, CONCILIATORY AS LONG AS CLERGY DID NOT CHALLENGE CIVIL AUTHORITY

B. TREATY WITH VATICAN TO DEFUSE CRISIS/CRITICAL OF CALLES POLICY OF CONFRONTATION WITH CHURCH

C. ACCOMMODATED CHURCH; CONVINCED ANTI-CLERICALS (CALLES) THAT WAS NO TOOL OF ROME

VII. U.S.

A. AGENDA FOR CONFLICT WITH U.S. IN 1917 CONSTITUTION

1. MEXICAN GOVT. CLAIMS TO SUBSOIL/SURFACE SOVEREIGNTY

2. AGRARIAN/SOCIAL REFORM/EXPROPRIATION THREATEN U.S. CONTROL OF MEXICAN RESOURCES

3. INTENSE U.S. PRESSURE TO UNDERMINE ECONOMIC NATIONALISM

B. OBREGON SOUGHT TO REASSURE U.S.

1. VERBAL ASSURANCES OF FRIENDSHIP

2. WELCOMED FOREIGN INVESTMENT

3. U.S. HELD HIGH CARDS: OBREGON NEEDED FORMAL U.S. DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION & ARMS SALES TO SURVIVE DE LA HUERTA REVOLT

C. OBREGON CAVES IN TO MOST U.S. DEMANDS (W/O APPEARING TO!)

1. SUPREME COURT IN 1921: RULES ARTICLE 27 OF 1917 CONSTITUTION NOT TO BE APPLIED RETROACTIVELY: FOREIGN OIL COMPANIES CAN KEEP LAND ALREADY DEVELOPED

2. OBREGON ACKNOWLEDGES MEXICO'S FOREIGN DEBT IN AGREEMENT WITH INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF BANKERS ON MEXICO-PLEDGES TO PAY $1.5 BILLION DEBT IN 1922

3. BUCARELI TREATY OF AUGUST 1923:

a. OBREGON PLEDGES TO BACK COURT RULING ON RETROACTIVITY: I.E. OIL COMPANY PROPERTIES WILL BE UNTOUCHABLE



b. MIXED CLAIMS COMMISSION TO ASSESS/ARRANGE REPAYMENT OF DAMAGE FROM MEXICAN REVOLUTION

4. TREATY FOLLOWED BY IMMEDIATE US DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION: NEW LOANS, ARMS SALES THAT SAVE OBREGON REGIME FROM REVOLT BY DE LA HUERTA LATER IN 1923

VIII. PACIFICATION OF PANCHO VILLA

A. GOVT. BOUGHT VILLA A 25,000 ACRE HACIENDA IN DURANGO FOR $500,000 WITH MANY BODYGUARDS AND ANNUAL SUBSIDY

B. VILLA GOT ALLOWANCE OF $100,000 ANNUALLY, PLUS DIRECT ACCESS TO OBREGON/ TREATY WITH COURTESY & RESPECT; BUT VILLA DID NOT GET PERSONAL POLITICAL OR MILITARY POWER

C. VILLA ASSASINATED UNDER MYSTERIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES ON EVE OF 1923 DE LA HUERTA REVOLT: I.E. ONLY VILLA COULD IMMEDIATELY RECRUIT LARGE FOLLOWING IN NORTH MEXICO TO OPPOSE OBREGON/CALLES-SO VILLA HAD TO DIE! HAD VILLA LIVED-OUTCOME OF DE LA HUERTA REVOLT LIKELY TO BE VERY DIFFERENT

IX. THE ARMY

A. PERSONAL/PERSONAL POPULARITY OF OBREGONWITH RANK-AND-FILE

B. REWARDS FOR MOST IMPORTANT MILITARY OFFICERS: GOVT. POSTS (6 OF 9 CABINET MINISTERS WERE GENERALS)

C. DISCHARGED ONE-HALF OF ARMY BY 1923: PENSIONED OFFICERS/ENCOURAGED THEM TO GO INTO BUSINESS

D. ARMY DISCONTENTS JOINED DE LA HUERTA: WITH DEFEAT WERE PHYSICALLY ELIMINATED (MASS EXECUTIONS OF OFFICERS WHO SUPPORTED DE LA HUERTA)

1. REWARDS FOR LOYAL TROOPS/OFFICERS

2. CAPTURED REBEL OFFICERS FACED UNFORGIVING PUNISHMENT

3. CRUCIAL SUPPORT FOR OBREGON CAME FROM WORKER & PEASANT AUXILIARY MILITARY FORCES

X. OBREGON SUCCESS AIDED BY:

A. GENERAL WEARINESS WITH FIGHTING/END TO REVOLUTIONARY EUPHORIA/PESSIMISM AND DESPAIR DOMINANT ATTITUDES IN 1920S



B. GROWING CONSERVATISM OF "REVOLUTIONARY FAMILY" (MILITARY/POLITICAL LEADERS GET RICH IN BUSINESS-NEW CLASS OF MILLIONAIRES)

C. OBREGON POLITICS WERE MIXTURE OF POPULISM & CAPITALISM

1. EMPHASIS ON CAPITALIST MODERNIZATION SIMILAR TO DIAZ (BUT MUCH LESS SUCCESSFUL!)

2. MUCH MORE EMPHASIS ON MAINTAIN SOCIAL PEACE/EQUILIBRIUM-I.E. BALANCING POPULAR DEMANDS VERSUS DEMANDS OF FOREIGN CAPITAL

D. OBREGON SUCCESSFUL IN POLITICAL TERMS, EVEN THOUGH MEXICAN ECONOMY REMAINED STAGNANT, DEPRESSED IN 1920S-OVERALL MEXICO POORER/QUALITY OF LIFE DETERIORATED SHARPLY COMPARED TO 1910