THE MOVEMENTS FOR MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE



I. BACKGROUND CAUSES



A. CROP FAILURES



1. CORN CROP FAILS 1785/1810--DROUGHT/FROST



2. IMPACTS HEAVIEST ON POOR/INDIANS



3. EPIDEMICS KILL MALNOURISHED



B. LAND HUNGER



1. INDIAN POP. INCREASED RAPIDLY IN 18TH CENT.



2. HACIENDAS SURROUND INDIAN VILLAGES/USURPTION



3. ACUTE WHERE CORPORATE INDIAN VILLAGES WEAK



C. EXPLOITATION OF INDIANS/CASTES



1. RESTRICTIONS/DISCRIMIINATION GEO/OCCUPAT.



2. TRIBUTE/HEAD TAX



3. CROWN LESS DILIGENT IN PROTECTING INDIANS NOW



D. ECONOMIC/POLITICAL DECADENCE OF SPAIN



1. SICKMAN OF EUROPE



2. MIDDLEMAN FOR ENGLAND/FRANCE INDUSTRIES



3. ENTANGLED IN EUROPEAN WARS



4. UNABLE TO PROTECT AMERICAN COLONIES/IN/OUT



E. INCREASING IMPERIAL EXACTIONS



1. BY 1800 MT $14 MILLION EXTRACTED ANNUALLY



2. 2/3'S OF REVENUE TAKEN OUT OF MEXICO



3. CONSOLIDACION DE VALES REALES--1804



a. CROWN SEIZES $44.6 MILLION IN CH. LOANS



b. BORROWERS RUINED/ESPECIALLY LANDOWNERS



c. GENERALIZED IMPACT ON ECONOMY/LIQUIDITY



F. CREOLE-PENINSULAR RIVALRIES



1. VISIBLE SINCE 1ST GENERATION AFTER CONQUEST



2. PENINSULAR PREFERENCE IN HIGH GOVT., CHURCH



3. PENINSULAR EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS IN COMMERCE



G. CHURCH-STATE CONFLICT



1. EXPULSION OF JESUITS--1767



2. BOURBON ANTI-CLERICALISM



3. CONSOLIDACION OF 1804/MORE FEARED



II. STABILIZING FORCES



A. NEW SPAIN MOST PROSPEROUS COLONY



1. 10X INCREASE IN SILVER IN 18TH C.



2. 1804 PRODUCTION OF $27 MILLION



B. MOST GROUPS CONTINUE TO SEE ADVANTAGE IN

CROWN RULE



III. PRECIPITATING CAUSES



A. COLLAPSE OF BOURBON MONARCHY



1. NAPOLEON INVADES SPAIN/DEPOSES FERDINAND VII



2. JOSEPH BONAPARTE NOT RECOG. AS LEGITIMATE



3. IN ABSENCE OF KING, WHO RULES MEXICO?



B. POWER STRUGGLE BETWEEN PENINSULARES & CREOLES



1. CREOLES PRESSURE VICEROY ITURRIGARAY TO

RECOGNIZE CREOLE JUNTA TO RULE MEXICO



2. CREOLE JUNTA PROPOSES CREOLE PREFERENCE

IN GOVT./CHURCH SERVICE/END CONSOLIDACION/

FREE TRADE WITH NEUTRAL NATIONS



3. CONSULADO MILITIA OF PENINSULARES STAGES

COUP IN SEPTEMBER 1808



4. PENINSULARES EXILE OLD VICEROY/JAIL CREOLE

LEADERS/NAME VICEROY TO FAVOR THEIR INTERESTS



5. CREOLES REMAIN ACTIVE IN PROVINCES



IV. HIDALGO REVOLT



A. CREOLES IN BAJIO PLAN BARRACKS REVOLT WITH MILITIA



B. COVER IS LITERARY CLUB/SECRET REVOLT FOR DEC. 1810



C. SPANISH AUTHORITIES PREEMPTIVE ARRESTS SEP. 1810



D. CAPT.S ALDAMA/ALLENDE FLEE/WARN PARISH PRIEST IN

DOLORES OF IMMINENT ARREST



E. FATHER HIDALGO



1. CREOLE SON OF HACIENDA MANAGER



2. POOR PARISH PRIEST



3. UNORTHODOX BELIEFS



a. INVESTIGATED BY INQUISITION--1800



b. QUESTIONED CELIBACY--2 CHILDREN



c. READ CENSORED BOOKS/GAMBLED/DANCED

d. DOUBTED VIRGIN BIRTH, INFALLIBITY OF

POPE



e. CALLED SPANISH KING A TYRANT



F. HIDALGO LAUNCHES REVOLT TO EVADE ARREST



1. USES INDIANS/MESTIZOS, NOT CREOLE MILITIA



2. ADDRESSES PARISHIONERS EARLY MORN 16SEP1810:



"My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourself? Will you recover your lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act as once...Will you not defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government!



G. MASSES IN BAJIO JOIN HIDALGO IN REVOLT



1. MOBS STORM SAN MIGUEL, CELAYA, GUANAJUATO

WITH ARMY OF 60,000/WITH 80,000 TAKE

ZACATECAS, SAN LUIS POTOSI, VALLADOLID



2. BY NOV. 1810 POISED TO TAKE MEXICO CITY



3. HIDALGO ARMY DEFEATED/ROUTED/DISINTEGRATES

AFTER BATTLE WITH ROYALIST MILITIA IN JAN.

1811/HIDALGO CAPTURED MAR. 1811/EXEC. JUL1811



H. WHY HIDALGO REVOLT FAILED?



1. CREOLES FAILED TO SUPPORT HIDALGO



a. REVOLT DEGENERATED INTO CASTE WAR:



ACCOUNT OF SLAUGHTER AT GUANAJUATO: "This pillage was more merciless than would have been expected of a foreign army. the miserable scene of that sad night was lighted by torches. All that could be heard was the pounding by which doors were opened and the ferocious howls of the rabble when the doors gave way. They dashed in triumph to rob commercial products, furniture, everyday clothing, and all manner of things. The women fled terrorized to the houses of the neighbors climbing along roof tops without yet knowing if that afternoon they had lost a father or a husband at the granary...The plaza and the streets were littered with broken pieces of furniture and other things robbed from the stores, of liquor spilled after the masses had drunk themselves into a stupor."



b. CREOLE MILITIA PUT DOWN REVOLT



2. INDIANS IN CENTRAL MEXICO DID NOT SUPPORT



3. HIDALGO SABOTAGED OWN CAUSE



V. MORELOS REVOLT



A. JOSE MARIA MORELOS



1. MESTIZO/SON OF CARPENTER/FORMER MULE-SKINNER



2. PARISH PRIEST IN TIERRA CALIENTE



3. ORGANIZES HIDALGO FORCES IN WEST



B. ATTEMPTED TO CORRECT FLAWS IN HIDALGO REVOLT



1. SMALL DISCIPLINED ARMY--2,000-3,000



2. NO INDIAN COMBATANTS



3. CLEAR POLITICAL PROGRAM--LAND REFORM,

INDEPENDENCE, END CASTE SYSTEM, NO SLAVERY



C. MORELOS DEFEATED IN SUMMER 1813/CAP.-EXEC. 1815



1. NO CREOLE SUPPORT



2. NO POPULAR SUPPORT FOR CHANGE



D. MARKED END TO SERIOUS RESISTANCE BY 1816



1. GUADALUPE VICTORIA--PUEBLA/VERACRUZ



2. VICENTE GUERRERO--S.W. MEXICO



VI. ITURBIDE REVOLT



A. COL. AGUSTIN ITURBIDE



1. UNLIKELY LIBERATOR



2. ROYALIST COMMANDER/CORRUPTION/ATROCITIES



3. APPOINTED BY VICEROY APODACA TO LEAD

EXPEDITION TO ERADICATE GUERRERO IN 1820



4. CHURCH PROVIDED MONEY FOR EXPEDITION





B. CONSERVATIVE CONSPIRACY



1. SPANISH ARMY MUTINY FORCED FERDINAND VII

TO ACCEPT LIBERAL 1812 CONSTITUTION



2. CHURCH, CORPORATIONS, ELITE THREATENED

BY LIBERAL REFORMS IN SPAIN IN 1820



a. RESTRICTED CHURCH RIGHT TO OWN

PROPERTY/SUPPRESSED RELIG. ORDERS



b. ABOLISHED FUEROS/SPECIAL COURTS

FOR CORPORATIONS/NO MAYORAZGOS/

NO REPARTIMIENTOS



c. BROADENED ELECTORAL FRANCHISE



3. REACTION TO PERCEIVED THREAT TO COL. ORDER



C. PLAN DE IGUALA -- PLAN OF THREE GUARANTEES



1. ITURBIDE PEACE WITH GUERRERO/PRONOUNCES

AGAINST SPAIN/PRESENTS INDEP. PLAN--24FEB1821



2. PROGRAM: UNION, RELIGION, AND INDEPENDENCE



a. MEXICO-INDEPENDENT, CATHOLIC, NO CASTES



b. GUARANTEES FOR EXISTING SOCIAL STRUCTURE



(1) CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

(2) SECURITY FOR CHURCH PROPERTY/PRIVIL

(3) PROPERTY RIGHTS/PUB. OFFICES TO

PRESENT HOLDERS



3. PLAN ENJOYED BROAD SUPPORT/SPAIN POWERLESS TO

PREVENT SEPARATION/VICEROY O'DONOJU SIGNS

TREATY--RECOGNIZES INDEPENDENCE



4. INDEPENDENCE WITHOUT MEANINGFUL CHANGE