LA REFORMA:

BACKGROUND CAUSES OF THE REFORM MOVEMENT

I. ECONOMIC COLLAPSE

A. PRODUCT OF INEFFICIENT ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION/SUDDEN ABSENCE OF EFFECTIVE STATE REGULATION, MEDIATION, DIRECTION

B. DEPRESSION IN MINING, AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE

C. FAILURE IN ATTEMPT TO INDUSTRIALIZE

II. ETHNIC CONFLICT

A. MESTIZOS V. CREOLES

B. CREOLE ATTEMPT TO MONOPOLIZE RESOURCES, POWER, PRIVILEGES BY REVIVING COLONIAL ORDER

C. MESTIZOS ARE 50% OF 1855 POPULATION

D. UPWARD MOBILITY OF MESTIZOS FRUSTRATED BY CONSERVATIVES

E. LEADERS OF LIBERAL MOVEMENT--MESTIZOS/LEADERS OF CONSERVATIVES--CREOLES

F. POLITICS AVENUE FOR UPWARD SOCIAL MOBILITY: I.E. LIBERAL V. CONSERVATIVE CONFLICT DISGUISED UNDERLYING ETHNIC CONFLICT

III. GENERATIONAL CONFLICT

A. CONSERVATIVES--BORN BEFORE INDEPENDENCE

B. LIBERALS--BORN AFTER INDEPENDENCE

IV. REGIONAL CONFLICT

A. LIBERALS--BORN IN PERIPHERY--VERACRUZ, SAN LUIS POTOSI, ZACATECAS, GUANAJUATO, JALISCO, MICHOACAN, GUERRERO, OAXACA

B. CONSERVATIVES--BORN IN MEXICO/MEXICO CITY/OLD COLONIAL CENTERS

C. REGIONAL CONFLICT MANIFESTED AS FEDERALISM V. CENTRALISM; CAUDILLISMO

V. CHURCH-STATE CONFLICT (DRIVEN BY INSTITUTIONAL/SECTORAL CONFLICT)

A. COMPLAINTS AGAINST CHURCH

1. EXCESSIVE WEALTH: $100 MILLION (5X GOVT. REVENUE)

2. CHURCH FINANCE/LAND

3. ABUSE OF FUEROS: IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION

4. LOW MORALITY OF CLERGY

5. EXPLOITATION OF POOR: FEES FOR BURIALS, MASSES

6. A NATION WITHIN A NATION

7. LIBERALS AS MOST VOCAL CRITICS

B. SUPPORT FOR CHURCH

1. CHURCH AS FOUNDATION FOR SOCIAL ORDER

2. FUEROS APPROPRIATE CORPORATE PRIVILEGE

3. WEALTH USED FOR POSITIVE ENDS/GOD'S REWARD FOR SERVICE

4. CHURCH HAS NATURAL SPHERE OF INTEREST-I.E. CONTROL OF BIRTH-DEATH CYCLE/EDUCATION/ETC

5. CHURCH BEFORE STATE

C. CHURCH AND POLITICS

1. 1821: CHURCH FINANCES ITURBIDE CONSPIRACY

2. 1822: CHURCH OUTRAGED WITH FORCED LOANS/PLOTS AGAINST ITURBIDE/SUPPORTS COUP

3. 1824: CHURCH PRESSURE TO PRESERVE RIGHTS IN 1824 CONSTITUTION

4. 1829: CHURCH AS CONSPIRATOR IN REVOLT V. GUERRERO/SOUGHT HIS EXECUTION

5. 1834-35: CHURCH USES SANTA ANNA TO THWART LIBERAL REFORMS THAT WOULD PROHIBIT USE OF PULPIT FOR POLITICS, SECULARIZE EDUCATION, ABOLISH TITHES, BREAK MONASTIC VOWS, ETC.

6. 1835-1845: CHURCH AS VISIBLE SUPPORTER IN CONSERVATIVE DICTATORSHIPS/NEW LAWS PROHIBIT SALE OF CHURCH PROPERTIES/GUARANTEE SOCIAL ROLES

7. 1847: CHURCH ENCOURAGES REVOLT TO FRUSTRATE PLANS TO SELL CHURCH PROPERTIES TO RAISE MONEY TO FIGHT WAR WITH U.S.

8. 1853: CHURCH COLLABORATES WITH SANTANNISTA GOVT.

9. 1856-1867: CHURCH ATTEMPTS TO UNDO LA REFORMA

D. CHURCH INTRANSIGENCE RADICALIZED LIBERALS

1. EVENTUALLY WOULD SEEK TO NATIONALIZE CHURCH PROPERTY

2. WOULD SEEK TO REDEFINE ROLE OF CHURCH IN SOCIETY

VI. IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT (DIMENSION OF INSTITUTIONAL/SECTORAL CONFLICT)

A. LIBERALISM V. CONSERVATISM STRUGGLE OF OLD V. NEW

B. DIFFUSION OF EUROPEAN IDEOLOGY: REFLECTION OF EUROPEAN POLITICAL STRUGGLES/INCONSISTENCIES

C. LIBERALISM:

1. COLONIAL PAST EXPLANATION FOR CURRENT WOES

2. PRIVILEGED GROUPS RESTRAIN MEXICAN PROGRESS

3. IDEAL WAS JEFFERSONIAN AGRARIAN DEMOCRACY

4. IDEOLOGICAL VISION: INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS PREVAIL OVER RESTRICTIVE LEGISLATION & ARTIFICIAL PRIVILEGE

5. FAITH IN ADAM SMITH'S INVISIBLE HAND: PREMISE THAT GOOD OF INDIVIDUAL HARMONIZED WITH GOOD OF SOCIETY

6. INSTITUTIONS THAT INTERFERED WITH FREE PLAY OF INDIVIDUALISM SHOULD BE EXCISED FROM SOCIETY

a. CHURCH: BETRAYED NATION/POLITICAL INTERFERENCE/MONOPOLIZED WEALTH/STATE WITHIN A STATE

b. EJIDO: MADE INDIVIDUALS MORE DEVOTED TO VILLAGE THAN TO STATE/BRAKE ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT--CURBED INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE, PREVENTED CIRCULATION OF PRIVATE PROPERTY

7. CONTRADICTIONS:

a. NO CONSENSUS FOR CHANGE (ENTREPRENEURS ARE CONSERVATIVES/OPPORTUNISTS)

b. NEEDED STRONG CENTRALIZED STATE TO DESTROY COLONIAL ORDER/STRONG STATE THE ANTITHESIS OF UNFETTERED INDIVIDUALISM

D. CONSERVATISM

1. MEXICO FAILED BECAUSE COLONIAL TRADITIONS LOST IN REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENTS/COLLAPSE OF COMMON BONDS THAT HOLD NATION TOGETHER

2. COLONIAL PAST WAS GLORIOUS/CHURCH REPRESENTED ORDER & STABILITY

3. MONARCHY AS MEANS TO RECAPTURE LEGITIMACY

4. VISION OF SOCIETY ORGANIZED CORPORATIVELY/SOCIETY RUN BY AND FOR A SMALL ELITE GROUP OF LANDOWNERS, CLERGY, MILITARY OFFICERS

5. PARADOX: LANDOWNERS NOT CONSERVATIVES (CONTRAST WITH EUROPEAN CONSERVATISM) NOT CORPORATIZED, HAD NO FEUDAL PRIVILEGES TO PROTECT/WANTED TO END EJIDO PRIVILEGES

VII. CATALYTIC EVENTS/PRECIPITATE REFORM

A. WAR WITH UNITED STATES

1. STIMULATED NATIONALISM

2. CONCERN WITH SURVIVAL OF NATION

3. BLAME FOR LOSS

B. SANTA ANNA DICTATORSHIP: 1853-55

1. INTERRUPTED CAREERS OF MESTIZO ELITES

2. SALE OF TERRITORY JEOPARDIZED NATION

3. CONFLICT WITH CAUDILLOS--ALVAREZ IN GUERRERO

4. ECO-POL. COLLAPSE COMPLETE BY 1855/CONSERVATIVE VISION DISCREDITED

VIII. THE REFORM

A. LEY JUAREZ

1. ABOLISHED SPECIAL COURTS/FUEROS FOR CHURCH MILITARY

2. ESTABLISHED PRINCIPLE OF SUPREMACY OF STATE OVER SPECIAL INTERESTS

3. CREATED UNITARY COURT SYSTEM/EQUAL JUSTICE

B. LEY LERDO

1. ORDERED DISAMORTIZATION OF CORPORATE PROPERTIES

2. OBLIGED CHURCH/CIVIL CORPORATIONS TO SELL LAND

C. LEY IGLESIAS

1. AIMED AT CLERGY: RESTRICTED INTERFERENCE IN CIVIL MATTERS

2. LIMITED FEES IN BAPTISM, MARRIAGES, BURIALS, ETC.

3. EXPANDED ROLE OF STATE IN CONTROLLING BIRTH-DEATH CYCLE

D. CONSTITUTION OF 1856

1. INCORPORATED REFORM LAWS AS SUPREME LAW

2. FOCUS OF CONFLICT--LIBERALS V. CONSERVATIVES

E. CHURCH FINANCES PUEBLA REVOLT IN 1856/CONSPIRACY WITH CONSERVATIVES IN 1858/THREE YEARS WAR TO DETERMINE FATE OF LIBERAL REFORMS/LIBERALS RETALIATE BY EXPROPRIATING CHURCH PROPERTY/CHURCH WELCOMES FOREIGN INTERVENTION, BUT THAT TOO WAS DEFEATED/LA REFORMA TRIUMPHS