OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT EXACTLY IS OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)?

ODD is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized by two different sets of problems.  These are aggressiveness and a tendency to purposely bother and irritate others.  According to diagnostic guidelines, ODD is characterized by a repeating pattern of defiant, disobedient, hostile and negative behavior toward authority figures.  These characteristics exist for at least 6 months and must occur more often than other children at the same developmental level.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ODD?

In order to be diagnosed with ODD, children must exhibit 4 or more of the following symptoms:

WHAT MAKES ODD DIFFERENT FROM CONDUCT DISORDER (CD)?

Children with ODD can certainly be an annoyance and can be difficult to manage in the classroom, but they are rarely harmful to others or physically aggressive.  They are often verbally aggressive with authority figures and peers who attempt to give directives or exert power over them.  Children or adolescents with CD, however, engage in aggressive or antisocial behaviors that can compromise their own safety, the safety of others and the security of others' possessions.  Click here to see more information on Conduct Disorder from the National Mental Health Association.

WHO HAS ODD?

It is estimated that between 2% and 16% of children between the ages of 8 and 18 are diagnosed with ODD, although the diagnosis is sometimes made in children as young as preschool age.  More boys are diagnosed with ODD before puberty, but diagnosis rates in males and females are equal after puberty.  Additionally, the number and severity of oppositional symptoms tend to increase with age.

WHERE DOES ODD COME FROM?

No single cause for ODD has been determined.  There are many interrelated factors that put a child at risk for developing ODD.  Risk factors contributing to the onset of ODD and CD in children can be grouped into the following categories: child variables, contextual or family variables, parenting variables and peer/school variables.  Interactions amongst these variables over time result in an increased risk for developing aggressive behaviors. 

WHAT CAN I EXPECT FROM A CHILD WITH ODD?

In addition to the characteristics previously mentioned, there are other behaviors that can be expected from a child with ODD:

WHAT ARE COMMON TREATMENTS FOR ODD?

Because there are many factors, often interrelated, that put a child at risk for aggression or ODD, there are a variety of treatments that are used to address the problem.  Multi-systemic therapy is one of the most common treatments for ODD.  This therapy is based on a systems perspective which addresses all problems that play a part in the child’s disruptive behavior, including family, peers, school and the individual at risk.  Multi-systemic therapy has been successful in reducing some of the behaviors associated with ODD.

WHAT CAN I DO RIGHT NOW?

Many of the treatments available for aggression or ODD are long-term and require the participation of family and other professionals.  Nonetheless, there are a variety of changes that can be made or techniques that can be easily implemented that might make life more pleasant for you and the child.

Additional Advice...

 

WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?

Teens with Problems

 

Youth Change—Your problem child, problem solution center.

 

Conduct Disorders

 

Internet Mental Health

 

Metropolitan Borough Of Stockport Disruptive Disorders Information


 

ADDITIONAL SITES WITH INFORMATION ON ODD:

 

http://www.adhd.com.au/conduct.html - Causes and treatments for ODD/CD

 

http://childparenting.about.com/library/blchildbehaviordisorder.htm  - Guide to resources for parents of children with behavioral and mental problems

 

www.focusas.com/BehavioralDisorders.html  - Broad resources addressing a variety of problem behaviors and disorders of children, adolescents and young adults

 

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/oddparentsroom/  Chatroom for parents with children with ODD

 

www.haworthpress.com/store/sampleText/J007.pdf   - Innovative Mental Health Interventions for Children: Programs that Work

 

www.ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/hostagg.pdf  - Preventing and dealing with challenging behavior

 

www.ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/passagg.htm  - Dealing with Passive Aggressive Behavior

 

http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/oddcd/oddcdpamphlet.htm  Overview of ODD, case examples, non-medical strategies for dealing with ODD/CD

 

www.lifematters.com/4goals.html  - An article that addresses the children's underlying goals of typical misbehavior and how adults can recognize them

 

www.youthchg.com/hottopic.html  - Interventions for aggressive behavior in children

 

 

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.). Washington DC: Author.

 

Carson, R. C., Butcher, J. N., & Mineka, S. (1998). Abnormal psychology and modern life: Tenth edition. New York: Addison Wesley

        Longman.

 

Chandler, J. (2001). Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Pamphlet.  <http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/oddcd/treat1.htm>

        26 Mar, 2003.

 

Jabs, C. (1999). Is your child too defiant? Working Mother, Mar. 99. <http://www.conductdisorders.com/FAQ.asp.>03 Jun, 2003.

 

Kazdin, A. E., & Weisz, J. R. (2003). Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

 

Minke, K. M., & Bear, G. C. (2000). Preventing school problems - Promoting school success: Programs and strategies that work.           

        Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

 

Quay, H. C., & Hogan, A. E. (1999). Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

 

Webster-Stratton, C., & Taylor, T. (2001). Nipping early risk factors in the bud: Preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in

        adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years). Prevention Science, 2(3), 165-192.

 

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