From the PBS documentary, Misunderstood Minds, this website offers information on math basics, math difficulties, and their implications and possible solutions.  The website includes links to activities that simulate math disability experiences.

This website links to articles on math disabilities, interventions, and other helpful information.

This website gives a definition of dyscalculia (math disabilities), symptoms, and strategies to use that may help.

NCTM sets mathematics instructional standards, which can be accessed through this website, along with other information regarding math education in the United States.

        Provides information on a hands-on, multi-sensory approach to learning number concepts.



Beck, M.D. (1992). Review of KeyMath-Revised. In J.J. Kramer & J.C. Conoley (Eds.), Eleventh Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 437-438). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Bos, C.S., & Vaugh, S. (2002). Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems, 5th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Finley, C.J. (1992). Review of KeyMath-Revised. In J.J. Kramer & J.C. Conoley (Eds.), Eleventh Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 438-439). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Garnett, Kate (1998, November). Math Learning Disabilities. Retrieved 11/3/02, from

Geary, David C. ( 1999). Mathematical Disabilities: What we know and donít know. Retrieved 11/3/02, from

Lerner, J. (2003). Learning Disabilities, 9th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Lock, Robin. H. (1996, Winter). Adapting Mathematics Instruction in the
General Education Classroom for Students with Mathematics Disabilities. Retrieved 11/2/02 from

National INstitute of Health (1993).  Learning Disabilities. NIH Publication No. 93-3611 Retrieved 11/8/02 from

PBS Misunderstood Minds website

Rathovan, Natalie (1999). Effective School Interventions. Guilford Press: New York, NY.

Shriner, J., & Salvia, J. (1988). Chronic noncorrespondence between elementary math curricula and arithmetic tests. Exceptional Children, 55, 240-248.

Wood, Judy W. (2002). Adapting Instruction to Accommodate Students in Inclusive Settings 4th edition. Merrill Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Wright, Christina C. (1996). Learning Disabilities in Mathematics National Center for Learning Disabilities Inc. Retrieved on 11/2/02 from


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